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Geocryology characteristics and use of frozen ground and permafrost landforms Stuart A. Harris (Department of Geography, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada), Anatoli Brouchkov (Geocryology Department, Faculty of Geology, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia), Cheng Guodong (Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, China)

By: Harris, Stuart A [VerfasserIn]Contributor(s): Brouchkov, Anatoli [VerfasserIn] | Cheng, Guodong [VerfasserIn]Material type: TextTextLanguage: English Publication details: Boca Raton London New York CRC Press [2018] Edition: First editionDescription: xliii, 765 Seiten Illustrationen, Karten, DiagrammeContent type: Text Media type: ohne Hilfsmittel zu benutzen Carrier type: BandISBN: 9781138054165; 9781315166988 (electronic)Subject(s): Dauerfrostboden | Permafrost | Frostboden | Ingenieurgeologie | PeriglazialGenre/Form: Lehrbuch DDC classification: 551.3/8 LOC classification: GB641Other classification: 38.49 | 38.69 | RB 10372 | RB 10268 | RB 10162 | RY 20162 | geo | ggo Online resources: Table of Contents
Contents:
Table of contents Preface About the authors Acknowledgements Dedication List of figures List of tables List of symbols Part I Introduction and characteristics of permafrost I Definition and description 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Additional terms originating in Russia 1.3 History of permafrost research 1.4 Measurement of ground temperature 1.5 Conduction, convection and advection 1.6 Therm al regimes in regions based on heat conduction 1.7 Continentality index 1.8 Moisture movement in the active layer during freezing and thawing 1.9 Moisture conditions in permafrost ground 1.10 Results of freezing moisture 1.11 Strength of ice 1.12 Cryosols, gelisols, and leptosols 1.13 Fragipans 1.14 Salinity in permafrost regions 1.15 Organic matter 1.16 Micro-organisms in permafrost 1.16.1 Antarctic permafrost 1.16.2 High-latitude permafrost 1.16.3 High altitude permafrost in China 1.16.4 Phenotypic traits 1.16.5 Relation to climate change on the Tibetan plateau 1.17 Gas and gas hydrates 1.18 Thermokarst areas 1.19 Offshore permafrost 2 Cryogenic processes where temperatures dip below 0°C 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The nature of ice and water 2.3 Effects of oil pollution on freezing 2.4 Freezing and thawing of the active layer in permafrost in equilibrium with a stable climate 2.5 Relation of clay mineralogy to the average position of the permafrost table 2.6 Ground temperature envelopes in profiles affected by changes in mean annual ground surface temperature (MASGT) 2.7 Needle ice 2.8 Frost heaving 2.9 Densification and thaw settlement 2.10 Cryostratigraphy, cryostructures, cryotextures and cryofacies 2.11 Ground cracking 2.12 Dilation cracking 2.13 Frost susceptibility 2.14 Cryoturbation, gravity processes and injection structures 2.14.1 Cryoturbation 2.14.2 Upward injection of sediments from below 2.14.3 Load-casting 2.15 Upheaving of objects 2.16 Upturning of objects 2.17 Sorting 2.18 Weathering and frost comminution 2.19 Karst in areas with permafrost 2.20 Seawater density and salinity 3 Factors affecting permafrost distribution 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Climatic factors 3.2.1 Heat balance on the surface of the Earth and its effect on the climate 3.2.2 Relationship between air and ground temperatures 3.2.3 Thermal offset 3.2.4 Relation to air masses 3.2.5 Precipitation 3.2.6 Latitude and longitude 3.2.7 Topography and altitude 3.2.8 Cold air drainage 3.2.9 Buffering of temperatures against change in mountain ranges 3.3 Terrain factors 3.3.1 Vegetation 3.3.2 Hydrology 3.3.3 Lakes and water bodies 3.3.4 Nature of the soil and rock 3.3.5 Fire 3.3.6 Glaciers 3.3.7 The effects of Man 4 Permafrost distribution 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Zonation of permafrost 4.3 Permafrost mapping 4.4 Examples of mapping units used 4.5 Modeling permafrost distribution 4.6 Advances in geophysical methods 4.7 Causes of variability reducing the reliability of small-scale maps 4.8 Maps of permafrost-related properties based on field observations 4.8.1 Permafrost thickness 4.8.2 Maps of ice content 4.8.3 Water resources locked up in perennially frozen ground 4.8.4 Total carbon content 4.9 Use of remote sensing and airborne platforms in monitoring environmental conditions and disturbances 4.10 Sensitivity to climate change: Hazard zonation 4.11 Classification of permafrost stability based on mean annual ground temperature Part II Permafrost landforms II. 1 Introduction 5 Frost cracking, ice-wedges, sand, loess and rock tessellons 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Primary and secondary wedges 5.2.1 Primary wedges 5.2.1.1 Ice-wedges 5.2.1.2 Sand tessellons 5.2.1.3 Loess tessellons 5.2.1.4 Rock tessellons 5.2.2 Secondary wedges 5.2.2.1 Ice-wedge casts 5.2.2.2 Soil wedges 6 Massive ground ice in lowlands 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Distribution of massive icy beds in surface sediments 6.3 Sources of the sediments 6.4 Deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet 6.5 Methods used to determine the origin of the massive icy beds 6.6 Massive icy beds interpreted as being formed by cryosuction 6.7 Massive icy beds that may represent stagnant glacial ice 6.8 Other origins of massive icy beds 6.9 Ice complexes including yedoma deposits 6.10 Conditions for growth of thick ice-wedges 6.11 The mechanical condition of the growth of ice-wedges and its connection to the properties of the surrounding sediments 6.12 Buoyancy of ice-wedges 6.13 Summary of the ideas explaining yedoma evolution 6.14 Aufeis 6.15 Perennial ice caves 6.16 Types of ice found in perennial ice caves 6.17 Processes involved in the formation of perennial ice caves 6.18 Cycles of perennial cave evolution 6.18.1 Perennial ice caves in deep hollows 6.18.2 Sloping caves with two entrances 6.18.3 Perennial ice caves with only one main entrance but air entering through cracks and joints in the bedrock walls 6.18.4 Perennial ice caves with only one main entrance and no other sources of cooling 6.19 Ice caves in subtropical climates 6.20 Massive blocks of ice in bedrock or soil 7 Permafrost mounds 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Mounds over 2.5 m diameter 7.2.1 Mounds formed predominantly of injection ice 7.2.1.1 Pingo mounds 7.2.1.2 Hydrostatic or closed system pingos 7.2.1.3 Hydraulic or open system pingos 7.2.1.4 Pingo plateaus 7.2.1.5 Seasonal frost mounds 7.2.1.6 Icing blisters 7.2.1.7 Perennial mounds of uncertain origin 7.2.1.8 Similar mounds that can be confused with injection phenomena 7.2.2 Mounds formed dominantly by cryosuction 7.2.2.1 Paisas 7.2.2.1.1 Paisas in maritime climates 7.2.2.1.2 Paisas in cold, continental climates 7.2.2.1.3 Lithalsas 7.2.2.1.4 Palsa/Lithalsa look-alikes 7.2.3 Mounds formed by the accumulation of ice in the thawing fringe: Peat plateaus 7.3 Cryogenic mounds less than 2.5 m in diameter 7.3.1 Oscillating hummocks 7.3.2 Thufurs 7.3.3 Silt-cycling hummocks 7.3.4 Niveo-aeolian hummocks 7.3.5 Similar-looking mounds of uncertain origin 7.3.6 String bogs 7.3.7 Pounus 8 Mass wasting of fine-grained materials in cold climates 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Classification of mass wasting 8.3 Slow flows 8.3.1 Cryogenic creep 8.3.1.1 Needle ice creep 8.3.1.2 Frost heave and frost creep 8.3.1.3 Gelifluction 8.3.1.4 Other creep-type contributions to downslope movement of soil 8.3.2 Landforms produced by cryogenic slow flows in humid areas 8.3.3 Landforms developed by cryogenic flows in more arid regions 8.4 Cryogenic fast flows 8.4.1 Cryogenic debris flows 8.4.2 Cryogenic slides and slumps 8.4.3 Cryogenic composite slope failures 8.4.3.1 Active-layer detachment slides 8.4.3.2 Retrogressive thaw failures 8.4.3.3 Snow avalanches and slushflows 8.4.3.3.1 Snow avalanches 8.4.3.3.2 Slush avalanches 8.5 Relative effect in moving debris downslope in the mountains 9 Landforms consisting of blocky materials in cold climates 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Source of the blocks 9.3 Influence of rock type 9.4 Weathering products 9.5 Biogenic weathering 9.6 Fate of the soluble salts produced by chemical and biogenic weathering 9.7 Rate of cliff retreat 9.8 Landforms resulting from the accumulation of predominantly blocky materials in cryogenic climates 9.8.1 Cryogenic block fields 9.8.1.1 Measurement of rates of release of blocks on slopes 9.8.2 Cryogenic block slopes and fans 9.8.3 Classification of cryogenic talus slopes 9.8.3.1 Coarse blocky talus slopes 9.8.4 Protection of infrastructure from falling rock 9.9 Talus containing significant amounts of finer material 9.9.1 Rock glaciers 9.9.1.1 Sedimentary composition and structure of active rock glaciers 9.9.1.2 Origin of the ice in active rock glaciers 9.9.1.3 Relationship to vegetation 9.9.2 Movement of active rock glaciers 9.9.2.1 Horizontal movement 9.9.2.2 Movement of the front 9.9.3 Distribution of active rock glaciers 9.9.4 Inactive and fossil rock glaciers 9.9.5 Streams flowing from under rock glaciers 9.10 Cryogenic block streams 9.10.1 Characteristics 9.10.2 Classification 9.10.2.1 Siberian active dynamic block streams - kurums 9.10.2.2 The Tibetan type of active dynamic block streams 9.10.2.3 Active cryogenic lag block streams 9.10.2.4 Inactive, relict block streams 9.11 Surface appearance of bločky landforms 10 Cryogenic patterned ground 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Forms of cryogenic patterned ground 10.3 Factors affecting the development of cryogenic patterned ground 10.4 Macroforms of cryogenic patterned ground 10.4.1 Cryogenic nonsorted circles 10.4.1.1 Cryogenic mudboils 10.4.1.1.1 Arctic mudboils 10.4.1.1.2 Subarctic mudboils 10.4.1.2 Xeric nonsorted circles 10.4.1.3 Nonsorted circles in maritime climates 10.4.1.4 Frost boils 10.4.1.5 Plug circles 10.5 Cryogenic sorted patterned ground 10.5.1 Cryogenic sorted circles 10.5.2 Cryogenic sorted polygons, and nets 10.5.2.1 Sorted stripes 10.5.2.2 Stone pits 10.6 Identification of active versus inactive forms of macro-sorted patterns 10.7 Microforms of cryogenic patterned ground 11 Thermokarst and thermal erosion 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Causes of thermokarst 11.3 Cavity development in permafrost 11.4 Effect of thermokarst on soil 11.5 Thermokarst landforms 11.5.1 Thermokarst pits 11.5.2 Thermokarst mounds 11.5.3 Pingo, paisa and lithalsa scars 11.5.4 Beaded streams 11.5.5 Thermokarst lakes 11.5.6 Oriented lakes 11.5.7 Alases 11.5.8 Cycle of alas formation 11.6 Thermokarst and thermal erosion along river banks 11.6.1 Ice jams 11.7 Thermal erosion and thermokarst processes along sea coasts 11.7.1 Effects of seasonal sea ice 11.7.2 Effects of geology 11.7.3 Topographic effects 11.7.4 Sea conditions 11.7.5 Deposition of sediments 11.8 Processes involved in the erosion of ice-rich arctic coastal sediments 11.9 Importance of coastal erosion of sediments containing permafrost Part III Use of permafrost areas III.1 Introduction 12 The mechanics of frozen soils 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Strains and stresses in the freezing and thawing of soils resulting in frost heaving 12.3 Rheological processes 12.4 Frost susceptibility 13 Foundations in permafrost regions: building stability 13.1 Introduction 13.2 The effect of construction on permafrost stability 13.3 Choice of method of construction 13.4 Building materials 13.5 Timing of construction 13.6 Types of foundations 13.6.1 Pads 13.6.2 Slabs and rafts 13.6.3 Sills 13.6.4 Spread footings 13.6.5 Piles 13.6.6 Thermosiphons 13.6.7 Artificial refrigeration 13.6.8 Ventilation ducts 13.6.9 Angle of slope of the embankment sides 13.6.10 Snow removal 13.6.11 The diode effect: use of rocks 13.6.12 Shading 13.6.13 Insulation 13.6.14 Use of geotextiles and waterproof plastics 14 Roads, railways and airfields 14.1 Introduction 14.2 The problems 14.3 Types of roads 14.4 Experimental embankments 14.5 Winter roads 14.6 Environmental effects of winter roads 14.7 Embankment heights 14.8 Unpaved embankments 14.9 Main problems with embankment stability 14.10 Concrete versus ballast railway tracks 14.11 Paving of road and airfield runways 14.12 Use of white paint 14.13 Bridges 14.14 Icings 14.15 Cut slopes 14.16 Airfield construction 15 Oil and gas industry 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Oil and gas exploration 15.3 Drilling rigs 15.4 Production and keeper wells 15.5 Sump problems 15.6 Pipelines 15.6.1 Buried mode 15.6.2 Pipelines on piles 15.6,2,1 Design parameters 15.6.2.2 Construction methods 15.6.2.3 Failures in the buried section 15.7 Monitoring 15.8 Compressor stations 15.9 Pipeline crossings 15.10 Effects of heat advection from producing wells 15.11 Gas hydrates in permafrost ice 16 Mining in permafrost areas 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Placer mining 16.3 Open cast/pit mining 16.3.1 Exploration 16.3.2 Extraction of the ore 16.4 Underground mining 16.4.1 Transport of the ore around the mine 16.4.2 Support facilities 16.5 Waste materials and tailings ponds 16.5.1 Toxic wastes 17 Provision of utilities 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Water supply 17.2.1 Sources of water 17.2.2 Dams to impound water on permafrost 17.2.3 Municipal water storage 17.2.4 Water treatment 17.2.5 Water requirements 17.2.6 Transportation methods for water and waste water 17.3 Waste disposal 17.3.1 Wastewater treatment and disposal 17.3.1.1 Undiluted wastes 17.3.1.2 Moderately diluted wastes 17.3.1.3 Conventional strength wastewater 17.3.1.4 Very dilute waste water 17.3.2 Solid waste disposal 17.4 Electric transmission lines 17.4.1 Foundation problems for transmission lines built on permafrost 17.4.2 Transmission tower foundation types 18 Agriculture and forestry 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Zonation of natural vegetation across Siberia 18.3 Zonation of natural vegetation in North America 18.4 Southern and Eastern Kazakhstan, Mongolia and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau 18.5 The Eichfeld zones 18.5.1 Eichfeld zone I 18.5.2 Eichfeld zone II 18.5.3 Eichfeld zone III 18.5.3.1 The northern Taiga 18.6 Asian steppe grasslands and deserts 18.7 The development of modern agriculture in permafrost areas 18.8 Forestry 18.9 Potential effects of climate changes References Subject index
Summary: This book provides a general survey of Geocryology, which is the study of frozen ground called permafrost. Frozen ground is the product of cold climates as well as a variety of environmental factors. Its major characteristic is the accumulation of large quantities of ice which may exceed 90% by volume. Soil water changing to ice results in ground heaving, while thawing of this ice produces ground subsidence often accompanied by soil flowage. Permafrost is very susceptible to changes in weather and climate as well as to changes in the microenvironment. Cold weather produces contraction of the ground, resulting in cracking of the soil as well as breakup of concrete, rock, etc. Thus permafrost regions have unique landforms and processes not found in warmer lands. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 provides an introduction to the characteristics of permafrost. Four chapters deal with its definition and characteristics, the unique processes operating there, the factors affecting it, and its general distribution. Part 2 consists of seven chapters describing the characteristic landforms unique to these areas and the processes involved in their formation. Part 3 discusses the special problems encountered by engineers in construction projects including settlements, roads and railways, the oil and gas industry, mining, and the agricultural and forest industries. The three authors represent three countries and three language groups, and together have over 120 years of experience of working in permafrost areas throughout the world. The book contains over 300 illustrations and photographs, and includes an extensive bibliography in order to introduce the interested reader to the large current literature.
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Literaturverzeichnis: Seite 637-755

Table of contents
Preface
About the authors
Acknowledgements
Dedication
List of figures
List of tables
List of symbols
Part I Introduction and characteristics of permafrost
I Definition and description
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Additional terms originating in Russia
1.3 History of permafrost research
1.4 Measurement of ground temperature
1.5 Conduction, convection and advection
1.6 Therm al regimes in regions based on heat conduction
1.7 Continentality index
1.8 Moisture movement in the active layer during freezing and thawing
1.9 Moisture conditions in permafrost ground
1.10 Results of freezing moisture
1.11 Strength of ice
1.12 Cryosols, gelisols, and leptosols
1.13 Fragipans
1.14 Salinity in permafrost regions
1.15 Organic matter
1.16 Micro-organisms in permafrost
1.16.1 Antarctic permafrost
1.16.2 High-latitude permafrost
1.16.3 High altitude permafrost in China
1.16.4 Phenotypic traits
1.16.5 Relation to climate change on the Tibetan plateau
1.17 Gas and gas hydrates
1.18 Thermokarst areas
1.19 Offshore permafrost
2 Cryogenic processes where temperatures dip below 0°C
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The nature of ice and water
2.3 Effects of oil pollution on freezing
2.4 Freezing and thawing of the active layer in permafrost in equilibrium with a stable climate
2.5 Relation of clay mineralogy to the average position of the permafrost table
2.6 Ground temperature envelopes in profiles affected by changes in mean annual ground surface temperature (MASGT)
2.7 Needle ice
2.8 Frost heaving
2.9 Densification and thaw settlement
2.10 Cryostratigraphy, cryostructures, cryotextures and cryofacies
2.11 Ground cracking
2.12 Dilation cracking
2.13 Frost susceptibility
2.14 Cryoturbation, gravity processes and injection structures
2.14.1 Cryoturbation
2.14.2 Upward injection of sediments from below
2.14.3 Load-casting
2.15 Upheaving of objects
2.16 Upturning of objects
2.17 Sorting
2.18 Weathering and frost comminution
2.19 Karst in areas with permafrost
2.20 Seawater density and salinity
3 Factors affecting permafrost distribution
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Climatic factors
3.2.1 Heat balance on the surface of the Earth and its effect on the climate
3.2.2 Relationship between air and ground temperatures
3.2.3 Thermal offset
3.2.4 Relation to air masses
3.2.5 Precipitation
3.2.6 Latitude and longitude
3.2.7 Topography and altitude
3.2.8 Cold air drainage
3.2.9 Buffering of temperatures against change in mountain ranges
3.3 Terrain factors
3.3.1 Vegetation
3.3.2 Hydrology
3.3.3 Lakes and water bodies
3.3.4 Nature of the soil and rock
3.3.5 Fire
3.3.6 Glaciers
3.3.7 The effects of Man
4 Permafrost distribution
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Zonation of permafrost
4.3 Permafrost mapping
4.4 Examples of mapping units used
4.5 Modeling permafrost distribution
4.6 Advances in geophysical methods
4.7 Causes of variability reducing the reliability of small-scale maps
4.8 Maps of permafrost-related properties based on field observations
4.8.1 Permafrost thickness
4.8.2 Maps of ice content
4.8.3 Water resources locked up in perennially frozen ground
4.8.4 Total carbon content
4.9 Use of remote sensing and airborne platforms in monitoring environmental conditions and disturbances
4.10 Sensitivity to climate change: Hazard zonation
4.11 Classification of permafrost stability based on mean annual ground temperature
Part II Permafrost landforms
II. 1 Introduction
5 Frost cracking, ice-wedges, sand, loess and rock tessellons
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Primary and secondary wedges
5.2.1 Primary wedges
5.2.1.1 Ice-wedges
5.2.1.2 Sand tessellons
5.2.1.3 Loess tessellons
5.2.1.4 Rock tessellons
5.2.2 Secondary wedges
5.2.2.1 Ice-wedge casts
5.2.2.2 Soil wedges
6 Massive ground ice in lowlands
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Distribution of massive icy beds in surface sediments
6.3 Sources of the sediments
6.4 Deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet
6.5 Methods used to determine the origin of the massive icy beds
6.6 Massive icy beds interpreted as being formed by cryosuction
6.7 Massive icy beds that may represent stagnant glacial ice
6.8 Other origins of massive icy beds
6.9 Ice complexes including yedoma deposits
6.10 Conditions for growth of thick ice-wedges
6.11 The mechanical condition of the growth of ice-wedges and its connection to the properties of the surrounding sediments
6.12 Buoyancy of ice-wedges
6.13 Summary of the ideas explaining yedoma evolution
6.14 Aufeis
6.15 Perennial ice caves
6.16 Types of ice found in perennial ice caves
6.17 Processes involved in the formation of perennial ice caves
6.18 Cycles of perennial cave evolution
6.18.1 Perennial ice caves in deep hollows
6.18.2 Sloping caves with two entrances
6.18.3 Perennial ice caves with only one main entrance but air entering through cracks and joints in the bedrock walls
6.18.4 Perennial ice caves with only one main entrance and no other sources of cooling
6.19 Ice caves in subtropical climates
6.20 Massive blocks of ice in bedrock or soil
7 Permafrost mounds
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Mounds over 2.5 m diameter
7.2.1 Mounds formed predominantly of injection ice
7.2.1.1 Pingo mounds
7.2.1.2 Hydrostatic or closed system pingos
7.2.1.3 Hydraulic or open system pingos
7.2.1.4 Pingo plateaus
7.2.1.5 Seasonal frost mounds
7.2.1.6 Icing blisters
7.2.1.7 Perennial mounds of uncertain origin
7.2.1.8 Similar mounds that can be confused with injection phenomena
7.2.2 Mounds formed dominantly by cryosuction
7.2.2.1 Paisas
7.2.2.1.1 Paisas in maritime climates
7.2.2.1.2 Paisas in cold, continental climates
7.2.2.1.3 Lithalsas
7.2.2.1.4 Palsa/Lithalsa look-alikes
7.2.3 Mounds formed by the accumulation of ice in the thawing fringe: Peat plateaus
7.3 Cryogenic mounds less than 2.5 m in diameter
7.3.1 Oscillating hummocks
7.3.2 Thufurs
7.3.3 Silt-cycling hummocks
7.3.4 Niveo-aeolian hummocks
7.3.5 Similar-looking mounds of uncertain origin
7.3.6 String bogs
7.3.7 Pounus
8 Mass wasting of fine-grained materials in cold climates
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Classification of mass wasting
8.3 Slow flows
8.3.1 Cryogenic creep
8.3.1.1 Needle ice creep
8.3.1.2 Frost heave and frost creep
8.3.1.3 Gelifluction
8.3.1.4 Other creep-type contributions to downslope movement of soil
8.3.2 Landforms produced by cryogenic slow flows in humid areas
8.3.3 Landforms developed by cryogenic flows in more arid regions
8.4 Cryogenic fast flows
8.4.1 Cryogenic debris flows
8.4.2 Cryogenic slides and slumps
8.4.3 Cryogenic composite slope failures
8.4.3.1 Active-layer detachment slides
8.4.3.2 Retrogressive thaw failures
8.4.3.3 Snow avalanches and slushflows
8.4.3.3.1 Snow avalanches
8.4.3.3.2 Slush avalanches
8.5 Relative effect in moving debris downslope in the mountains
9 Landforms consisting of blocky materials in cold climates
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Source of the blocks
9.3 Influence of rock type
9.4 Weathering products
9.5 Biogenic weathering
9.6 Fate of the soluble salts produced by chemical and biogenic weathering
9.7 Rate of cliff retreat
9.8 Landforms resulting from the accumulation of predominantly blocky materials in cryogenic climates
9.8.1 Cryogenic block fields
9.8.1.1 Measurement of rates of release of blocks on slopes
9.8.2 Cryogenic block slopes and fans
9.8.3 Classification of cryogenic talus slopes
9.8.3.1 Coarse blocky talus slopes
9.8.4 Protection of infrastructure from falling rock
9.9 Talus containing significant amounts of finer material
9.9.1 Rock glaciers
9.9.1.1 Sedimentary composition and structure of active rock glaciers
9.9.1.2 Origin of the ice in active rock glaciers
9.9.1.3 Relationship to vegetation
9.9.2 Movement of active rock glaciers
9.9.2.1 Horizontal movement
9.9.2.2 Movement of the front
9.9.3 Distribution of active rock glaciers
9.9.4 Inactive and fossil rock glaciers
9.9.5 Streams flowing from under rock glaciers
9.10 Cryogenic block streams
9.10.1 Characteristics
9.10.2 Classification
9.10.2.1 Siberian active dynamic block streams - kurums
9.10.2.2 The Tibetan type of active dynamic block streams
9.10.2.3 Active cryogenic lag block streams
9.10.2.4 Inactive, relict block streams
9.11 Surface appearance of bločky landforms
10 Cryogenic patterned ground
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Forms of cryogenic patterned ground
10.3 Factors affecting the development of cryogenic patterned ground
10.4 Macroforms of cryogenic patterned ground
10.4.1 Cryogenic nonsorted circles
10.4.1.1 Cryogenic mudboils
10.4.1.1.1 Arctic mudboils
10.4.1.1.2 Subarctic mudboils
10.4.1.2 Xeric nonsorted circles
10.4.1.3 Nonsorted circles in maritime climates
10.4.1.4 Frost boils
10.4.1.5 Plug circles
10.5 Cryogenic sorted patterned ground
10.5.1 Cryogenic sorted circles
10.5.2 Cryogenic sorted polygons, and nets
10.5.2.1 Sorted stripes
10.5.2.2 Stone pits
10.6 Identification of active versus inactive forms of macro-sorted patterns
10.7 Microforms of cryogenic patterned ground
11 Thermokarst and thermal erosion
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Causes of thermokarst
11.3 Cavity development in permafrost
11.4 Effect of thermokarst on soil
11.5 Thermokarst landforms
11.5.1 Thermokarst pits
11.5.2 Thermokarst mounds
11.5.3 Pingo, paisa and lithalsa scars
11.5.4 Beaded streams
11.5.5 Thermokarst lakes
11.5.6 Oriented lakes
11.5.7 Alases
11.5.8 Cycle of alas formation
11.6 Thermokarst and thermal erosion along river banks
11.6.1 Ice jams
11.7 Thermal erosion and thermokarst processes along sea coasts
11.7.1 Effects of seasonal sea ice
11.7.2 Effects of geology
11.7.3 Topographic effects
11.7.4 Sea conditions
11.7.5 Deposition of sediments
11.8 Processes involved in the erosion of ice-rich arctic coastal sediments
11.9 Importance of coastal erosion of sediments containing permafrost
Part III Use of permafrost areas
III.1 Introduction
12 The mechanics of frozen soils
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Strains and stresses in the freezing and thawing of soils resulting in frost heaving
12.3 Rheological processes
12.4 Frost susceptibility
13 Foundations in permafrost regions: building stability
13.1 Introduction
13.2 The effect of construction on permafrost stability
13.3 Choice of method of construction
13.4 Building materials
13.5 Timing of construction
13.6 Types of foundations
13.6.1 Pads
13.6.2 Slabs and rafts
13.6.3 Sills
13.6.4 Spread footings
13.6.5 Piles
13.6.6 Thermosiphons
13.6.7 Artificial refrigeration
13.6.8 Ventilation ducts
13.6.9 Angle of slope of the embankment sides
13.6.10 Snow removal
13.6.11 The diode effect: use of rocks
13.6.12 Shading
13.6.13 Insulation
13.6.14 Use of geotextiles and waterproof plastics
14 Roads, railways and airfields
14.1 Introduction
14.2 The problems
14.3 Types of roads
14.4 Experimental embankments
14.5 Winter roads
14.6 Environmental effects of winter roads
14.7 Embankment heights
14.8 Unpaved embankments
14.9 Main problems with embankment stability
14.10 Concrete versus ballast railway tracks
14.11 Paving of road and airfield runways
14.12 Use of white paint
14.13 Bridges
14.14 Icings
14.15 Cut slopes
14.16 Airfield construction
15 Oil and gas industry
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Oil and gas exploration
15.3 Drilling rigs
15.4 Production and keeper wells
15.5 Sump problems
15.6 Pipelines
15.6.1 Buried mode
15.6.2 Pipelines on piles
15.6,2,1 Design parameters
15.6.2.2 Construction methods
15.6.2.3 Failures in the buried section
15.7 Monitoring
15.8 Compressor stations
15.9 Pipeline crossings
15.10 Effects of heat advection from producing wells
15.11 Gas hydrates in permafrost ice
16 Mining in permafrost areas
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Placer mining
16.3 Open cast/pit mining
16.3.1 Exploration
16.3.2 Extraction of the ore
16.4 Underground mining
16.4.1 Transport of the ore around the mine
16.4.2 Support facilities
16.5 Waste materials and tailings ponds
16.5.1 Toxic wastes
17 Provision of utilities
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Water supply
17.2.1 Sources of water
17.2.2 Dams to impound water on permafrost
17.2.3 Municipal water storage
17.2.4 Water treatment
17.2.5 Water requirements
17.2.6 Transportation methods for water and waste water
17.3 Waste disposal
17.3.1 Wastewater treatment and disposal
17.3.1.1 Undiluted wastes
17.3.1.2 Moderately diluted wastes
17.3.1.3 Conventional strength wastewater
17.3.1.4 Very dilute waste water
17.3.2 Solid waste disposal
17.4 Electric transmission lines
17.4.1 Foundation problems for transmission lines built on permafrost
17.4.2 Transmission tower foundation types
18 Agriculture and forestry
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Zonation of natural vegetation across Siberia
18.3 Zonation of natural vegetation in North America
18.4 Southern and Eastern Kazakhstan, Mongolia and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
18.5 The Eichfeld zones
18.5.1 Eichfeld zone I
18.5.2 Eichfeld zone II
18.5.3 Eichfeld zone III
18.5.3.1 The northern Taiga
18.6 Asian steppe grasslands and deserts
18.7 The development of modern agriculture in permafrost areas
18.8 Forestry
18.9 Potential effects of climate changes
References
Subject index

This book provides a general survey of Geocryology, which is the study of frozen ground called permafrost. Frozen ground is the product of cold climates as well as a variety of environmental factors. Its major characteristic is the accumulation of large quantities of ice which may exceed 90% by volume. Soil water changing to ice results in ground heaving, while thawing of this ice produces ground subsidence often accompanied by soil flowage. Permafrost is very susceptible to changes in weather and climate as well as to changes in the microenvironment. Cold weather produces contraction of the ground, resulting in cracking of the soil as well as breakup of concrete, rock, etc. Thus permafrost regions have unique landforms and processes not found in warmer lands.

The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 provides an introduction to the characteristics of permafrost. Four chapters deal with its definition and characteristics, the unique processes operating there, the factors affecting it, and its general distribution. Part 2 consists of seven chapters describing the characteristic landforms unique to these areas and the processes involved in their formation. Part 3 discusses the special problems encountered by engineers in construction projects including settlements, roads and railways, the oil and gas industry, mining, and the agricultural and forest industries.

The three authors represent three countries and three language groups, and together have over 120 years of experience of working in permafrost areas throughout the world. The book contains over 300 illustrations and photographs, and includes an extensive bibliography in order to introduce the interested reader to the large current literature.

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