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An introduction to frozen ground engineering Orlando B. Andersland ; Branko Ladanyi

By: Andersland, Orlando B [VerfasserIn]Contributor(s): Ladanyi, Branko [VerfasserIn]Language: English Publication details: Dordrecht Springer 1994 ; New York [u.a.] Chapman & Hall 1994 Description: x, 352 Seiten IllustrationenContent type: Text Media type: ohne Hilfsmittel zu benutzen Carrier type: BandISBN: 978-1-4757-2292-5Subject(s): Frostboden | Permafrost | Dauerfrostboden | ErdbauGenre/Form: Einführung DDC classification: 624.15136 LOC classification: TA713
Contents:
Contents PREFACE CHAPTER 1. FROZEN GROUND 1.1 Frozen ground support systems Frozen earth wall Design considerations 1.2 Seasonally and perennially frozen ground Cold regions: definition Subsurface temperatures Active layer, Permafrost 1.3 Terrain features in permafrost areas Ground ice features Patterned ground 1.4 Engineering considerations Freezing process Thawing of frozen ground Frost action Useful aspects of frozen ground Ice as a construction material Problems CHAPTER 2. PHYSICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES 2.1 Composition and structure of frozen ground Soil types Phase relationships Ice phase Particle size and size distribution Consistency of cohesive soils 2.2 Soil classification Unified soil classification system Frozen soil classification 2.3 Water-ice phase relationships Unfrozen water in frozen soil Effect of solutes on freezing 2.4 Soil frost action Frost action process Frost susceptibility of soils Frost-heave forces Freeze-thaw effects on permeability 2.5 Thermal properties Thermal conductivity Heat capacity Thermal diffusiuity Latent heat of fusion Thermal expansion (or contraction) Problems CHAPTER 3. HEAT FLOW IN SOILS 3.1 Heat transfer at the ground surface Climatic factors Freezing (or thawing) indices Surface n-factor 3.2 Seasonal ground freezing (or thawing) Frost depth Thawing of frozen soil Design implications 3.3 Temperature below cooled (or heated) areas Steady state heat flow Transient temperatures Periodic heat flow 3.4 Thermal analysis: frozen ground support systems Single freeze pipe Wall formation Multiple rows of freeze pipes Problems CHAPTER 4. THAW BEHAVIOR OF FROZEN GROUND 4.1 Thaw settlement 4.2 Consolidation of thawing soils Thaw consolidation Residual stress in thawing soils 4.3 Thaw-consolidation in some layered systems Two layer soil problems Compressible soil ouer discrete ice layers Problems CHAPTER 5. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FROZEN SOILS 5.1 Stress-strain-time and strength behavior Hydrostatic pressure effect on frozen soil behavior Shear stress effect on frozen soil behavior 5.2 Factors influencing creep and strength Creep of frozen soil under constant stress Stress-strain behavior under constant strain rate Ice content effect on strength Normal pressure effect on strength Strain rate effect on strength Temperature effect on strength Frozen soil behauior at cryogenic temperatures 5.3 Analytical representation of creep and strength data General creep equation Strength of frozen soils Comparison with Vyalou's creep and strength equations Normal pressure effect on creep and strength Salinity effect on frozen soil creep and strength 5.4 Frozen soil behavior in uniaxial tension 5.5 Deformability of frozen soils 5.6 Compressibility of frozen soils Problems CHAPTER 6. CONSTRUCTION GROUND FREEZING 6.1 Design considerations Ground freezing applications Soil conditions Groundwater flow Ground movement 6.2 Freezing methods and system installation Primary plant and pumped loop secondary coolant Expendable liquid refrigerant Installation of the cooling system 6.3 Structural design of frozen earth walls Curved walls Straight walls and combinations Tunnels Finite-element method 6.4 Monitoring requirements Freeze hole deviation Temperature Frost boundary location and wall thickness 6.5 Other construction considerations Protection of exposed frozen earth Concrete placement against frozen earth Problems CHAPTER 7. FOUNDATIONS IN FROZEN SOILS 7.1 General considerations Foundations in seasonally frozen ground Foundations in permafrost 7.2 Shallow foundations Selection of foundation method Design of shallow foundations Bearing capacity Settlement considerations 7.3 Pile foundations Pile types Pile placement Pile freezeback Axially loaded piles Laterally loaded piles Anchors in frozen ground 7.4 Frost-heave forces on foundations Tangential forces on a vertical surface Design for frost heave Problems CHAPTER 8. STABILITY OF SOIL MASSES IN COLD REGIONS 8.1 Landslides in permafrost: classification 8.2 Slopes in thawing permafrost Low-angle planar flows Slides 8.3 Slopes in frozen soils 8.4 Slope stabilization methods Construction and design techniques Stabilization of planar slides Stabilization of cut slopes Problems CHAPTER 9. EARTHWORK IN COLD REGIONS 9.1 Site considerations Drainage Thermal and frost action factors Subsurface conditions Material sources 9.2 Excavation and transport Mechanical excavation Drilling and blasting Thawing frozen soil Hydraulic dredging 9.3 Field placement Compaction Placement in water 9.4 Water-retaining embankments on permafrost Unfrozen embankments Frozen embankments Maintaining the frozen state Thermal and stability considerations 9.5 Embankment performance Frost heave Settlement Stability Artificial islands CHAPTER 10. FIELD INVESTIGATIONS 10.1. Sampling frozen ground Sampling methods Sample protection 10.2 Ground-temperature measurement Temperature sensors and measuring equipment 10.3 Field testing of frozen soils Field test methods Pressuremeter test Deep static cone penetration test Other types of field tests 10.4 Geophysical methods Seismic velocities in frozen ground Electrical properties of frozen ground Geophysical techniques used in frozen ground High-frequency electrical methods Borehole logging in permafrost APPENDIX A. SYMBOLS APPENDIX B. SI UNITS APPENDIX C LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTS ON FROZEN SOILS C1 Handling, storage, and machining of specimens prior to testing C2 Uniaxial compression test C3 Uniaxial tensile test C.4 Salinity of soil pore water C5 Thermosiphon C6 Pile load test in permafrost REFERENCES AUTHOR INDEX SUBJECT INDEX
Summary: Frozen Ground Engineering first introduces the reader to the frozen environment and the behavior of frozen soil as an engineering material. In subsequent chapters this information is used in the analysis and design of ground support systems, foundations, and embankments. These and other topics make this book suitable for use by civil engineering students in a one-semester course on frozen ground engineering at the senior or first-year-graduate level. Students are assumed to have a working knowledge of undergraduate mechanics (statics and mechanics of materials) and geotechnical engineering (usual two-course sequence). A knowledge of basic geology would be helpful but is not essential. This book will also be useful to advanced students in other disciplines and to engineers who desire an introduction to frozen ground engineering or references to selected technical publications in the field. BACKGROUND Frozen ground engineering has developed rapidly in the past several decades under the pressure of necessity. As practical problems involving frozen soils broadened in scope, the inadequacy of earlier methods for coping became increasingly apparent. The application of ground freezing to geotechnical projects throughout the world continues to grow as significant advances have been made in ground freezing technology. Freezing is a useful and versatile technique for temporary earth support, groundwater control in difficult soil or rock strata, and the formation of subsurface containment barriers suitable for use in groundwater remediation projects.
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Item type Current library Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Monographie ausleihbar Monographie ausleihbar Gemeinsame Bibliothek
AWI Lesesaal
AWI G3-20-93489 (Browse shelf(Opens below)) Checked out 31/12/2022 000631279
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Contents
PREFACE
CHAPTER 1. FROZEN GROUND
1.1 Frozen ground support systems
Frozen earth wall
Design considerations
1.2 Seasonally and perennially frozen ground
Cold regions: definition
Subsurface temperatures
Active layer,
Permafrost
1.3 Terrain features in permafrost areas
Ground ice features
Patterned ground
1.4 Engineering considerations
Freezing process
Thawing of frozen ground
Frost action
Useful aspects of frozen ground
Ice as a construction material
Problems
CHAPTER 2. PHYSICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES
2.1 Composition and structure of frozen ground
Soil types
Phase relationships
Ice phase
Particle size and size distribution
Consistency of cohesive soils
2.2 Soil classification
Unified soil classification system
Frozen soil classification
2.3 Water-ice phase relationships
Unfrozen water in frozen soil
Effect of solutes on freezing
2.4 Soil frost action
Frost action process
Frost susceptibility of soils
Frost-heave forces
Freeze-thaw effects on permeability
2.5 Thermal properties
Thermal conductivity
Heat capacity
Thermal diffusiuity
Latent heat of fusion
Thermal expansion (or contraction)
Problems
CHAPTER 3. HEAT FLOW IN SOILS
3.1 Heat transfer at the ground surface
Climatic factors
Freezing (or thawing) indices
Surface n-factor
3.2 Seasonal ground freezing (or thawing)
Frost depth
Thawing of frozen soil
Design implications
3.3 Temperature below cooled (or heated) areas
Steady state heat flow
Transient temperatures
Periodic heat flow
3.4 Thermal analysis: frozen ground support systems
Single freeze pipe
Wall formation
Multiple rows of freeze pipes
Problems
CHAPTER 4. THAW BEHAVIOR OF FROZEN GROUND
4.1 Thaw settlement
4.2 Consolidation of thawing soils
Thaw consolidation
Residual stress in thawing soils
4.3 Thaw-consolidation in some layered systems
Two layer soil problems
Compressible soil ouer discrete ice layers
Problems
CHAPTER 5. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FROZEN SOILS
5.1 Stress-strain-time and strength behavior
Hydrostatic pressure effect on frozen soil behavior
Shear stress effect on frozen soil behavior
5.2 Factors influencing creep and strength
Creep of frozen soil under constant stress
Stress-strain behavior under constant strain rate
Ice content effect on strength
Normal pressure effect on strength
Strain rate effect on strength
Temperature effect on strength
Frozen soil behauior at cryogenic temperatures
5.3 Analytical representation of creep and strength data
General creep equation
Strength of frozen soils
Comparison with Vyalou's creep and strength equations
Normal pressure effect on creep and strength
Salinity effect on frozen soil creep and strength
5.4 Frozen soil behavior in uniaxial tension
5.5 Deformability of frozen soils
5.6 Compressibility of frozen soils
Problems
CHAPTER 6. CONSTRUCTION GROUND FREEZING
6.1 Design considerations
Ground freezing applications
Soil conditions
Groundwater flow
Ground movement
6.2 Freezing methods and system installation
Primary plant and pumped loop secondary coolant
Expendable liquid refrigerant
Installation of the cooling system
6.3 Structural design of frozen earth walls
Curved walls
Straight walls and combinations
Tunnels
Finite-element method
6.4 Monitoring requirements Freeze hole deviation
Temperature
Frost boundary location and wall thickness
6.5 Other construction considerations
Protection of exposed frozen earth
Concrete placement against frozen earth
Problems
CHAPTER 7. FOUNDATIONS IN FROZEN SOILS
7.1 General considerations
Foundations in seasonally frozen ground
Foundations in permafrost
7.2 Shallow foundations
Selection of foundation method
Design of shallow foundations
Bearing capacity
Settlement considerations
7.3 Pile foundations
Pile types
Pile placement
Pile freezeback
Axially loaded piles
Laterally loaded piles
Anchors in frozen ground
7.4 Frost-heave forces on foundations
Tangential forces on a vertical surface
Design for frost heave
Problems
CHAPTER 8. STABILITY OF SOIL MASSES IN COLD REGIONS
8.1 Landslides in permafrost: classification
8.2 Slopes in thawing permafrost
Low-angle planar flows
Slides
8.3 Slopes in frozen soils
8.4 Slope stabilization methods
Construction and design techniques
Stabilization of planar slides
Stabilization of cut slopes
Problems
CHAPTER 9. EARTHWORK IN COLD REGIONS
9.1 Site considerations
Drainage
Thermal and frost action factors
Subsurface conditions
Material sources
9.2 Excavation and transport
Mechanical excavation
Drilling and blasting
Thawing frozen soil
Hydraulic dredging
9.3 Field placement
Compaction
Placement in water
9.4 Water-retaining embankments on permafrost
Unfrozen embankments
Frozen embankments
Maintaining the frozen state
Thermal and stability considerations
9.5 Embankment performance
Frost heave
Settlement
Stability
Artificial islands
CHAPTER 10. FIELD INVESTIGATIONS
10.1. Sampling frozen ground
Sampling methods
Sample protection
10.2 Ground-temperature measurement
Temperature sensors and measuring equipment
10.3 Field testing of frozen soils
Field test methods
Pressuremeter test
Deep static cone penetration test
Other types of field tests
10.4 Geophysical methods
Seismic velocities in frozen ground
Electrical properties of frozen ground
Geophysical techniques used in frozen ground
High-frequency electrical methods
Borehole logging in permafrost
APPENDIX A. SYMBOLS
APPENDIX B. SI UNITS
APPENDIX C LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTS ON FROZEN SOILS
C1 Handling, storage, and machining of specimens prior to testing
C2 Uniaxial compression test
C3 Uniaxial tensile test
C.4 Salinity of soil pore water
C5 Thermosiphon
C6 Pile load test in permafrost
REFERENCES
AUTHOR INDEX
SUBJECT INDEX

Frozen Ground Engineering first introduces the reader to the frozen environment and the behavior of frozen soil as an engineering material. In subsequent chapters this information is used in the analysis and design of ground support systems, foundations, and embankments. These and other topics make this book suitable for use by civil engineering students in a one-semester course on frozen ground engineering at the senior or first-year-graduate level. Students are assumed to have a working knowledge of undergraduate mechanics (statics and mechanics of materials) and geotechnical engineering (usual two-course sequence). A knowledge of basic geology would be helpful but is not essential. This book will also be useful to advanced students in other disciplines and to engineers who desire an introduction to frozen ground engineering or references to selected technical publications in the field. BACKGROUND Frozen ground engineering has developed rapidly in the past several decades under the pressure of necessity. As practical problems involving frozen soils broadened in scope, the inadequacy of earlier methods for coping became increasingly apparent. The application of ground freezing to geotechnical projects throughout the world continues to grow as significant advances have been made in ground freezing technology. Freezing is a useful and versatile technique for temporary earth support, groundwater control in difficult soil or rock strata, and the formation of subsurface containment barriers suitable for use in groundwater remediation projects.

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