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Atmospheric chemistry and physics from air pollution to climate change John H. Seinfeld ; Spyros N. Pandis

By: Seinfeld, John H [VerfasserIn]Contributor(s): Pandis, Spyros N [VerfasserIn]Material type: TextTextLanguage: English Series: A Wiley-Interscience publicationPublication details: Hoboken, NJ Wiley 2006 Edition: Second editionDescription: xxviii, 1203 Seiten IllustrationenContent type: Text Media type: ohne Hilfsmittel zu benutzen Carrier type: BandISBN: 9780471720188Subject(s): Luftverschmutzung | Atmosphärisches Aerosol | Lehrbuch | Chemie | AtmosphäreGenre/Form: Lehrbuch DDC classification: 551.511
Contents:
CONTENTS: Preface to the Second Edition. - Preface to the First Edition. - 1 The Atmosphere. - 1.1 History and Evolution of the Earth's Atmosphere. - 1.2 Climate. - 1.3 The Layers of the Atmosphere. - 1.4 Pressure in the Atmosphere. - 1.4.1 Units of Pressure. - 1.4.2 Variation of Pressure with Height in the Atmosphere. - 1.5 Temperature in the Atmosphere. - 1.6 Expressing the Amount of a Substance in the Atmosphere. - 1.7 Spatial and Temporal Scales of Atmospheric Processes. - Problems. - References. - 2 Atmospheric Trace Constituents. - 2.1 Atmospheric Lifetime. - 2.2 Sulfur-Containing Compounds. - 2.2.1 Dimethyl Sulfide (CH3SCH3). - 2.2.2 Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS). - 2.2.3 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2). - 2.3 Nitrogen-Containing Compounds. - 2.3.1 Nitrous Oxide (N2O). - 2.3.2 Nitrogen Oxides (NO* = NO + NO2). - 2.3.3 Reactive Odd Nitrogen (NOy). - 2.3.4 Ammonia (NH3). - 2.4 Carbon-Containing Compounds. - 2.4.1 Classification of Hydrocarbons. - 2.4.2 Methane. - 2.4.3 Volatile Organic Compounds. - 2.4.4 Biogenic Hydrocarbons. - 2.4.5 Carbon Monoxide. - 2.4.6 Carbon Dioxide. - 2.5 Halogen-Containing Compounds. - 2.5.1 Methyl Chloride (CH3C1). - 2.5.2 Methyl Bromide (CH3Br). - 2.6 Atmospheric Ozone. - 2.7 Particulate Matter (Aerosols). - 2.7.1 Stratospheric Aerosol. - 2.7.2 Chemical Components of Tropospheric Aerosol. - 2.7.3 Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). - 2.7.4 Sizes of Atmospheric Particles. - 2.7.5 Sources of Atmospheric Paniculate. - 2.7.6 Carbonaceous Particles. - 2.7.7 Mineral Dust. - 2.8 Emission Inventories. - 2.9 Biomass Burning. - Appendix 2.1 Air Pollution Legislation. - Appendix 2.2 Hazardous Air Pollutants (Air Toxics). - Problems. - References. - 3 Chemical Kinetics. - 3.1 Order of Reaction. - 3.2 Theories of Chemical Kinetics. - 3.2.1 Collision Theory. - 3.2.2 Transition State Theory. - 3.2.3 Potential Energy Surface for a Bimolecular Reaction. - 3.3 The Pseudo-Steady-State Approximation. - 3.4 Reactions of Excited Species. - 3.5 Termolecular Reactions. - 3.6 Chemical Families. - 3.7 Gas-Surface Reactions. - Appendix 3 Free Radicals. - Problems. - References. - 4 Atmospheric Radiation and Photochemistry. - 4.1 Radiation. - 4.1.1 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation. - 4.1.2 Energy Balance for Earth and Atmosphere. - 4.1.3 Solar Variability. - 4.2 Radiative Flux in the Atmosphere. - 4.3 Beer-Lambert Law and Optical Depth. - 4.4 Actinic Flux. - 4.5 Atmospheric Photochemistry. - 4.6 Absorption of Radiation by Atmospheric Gases. - 4.7 Absorption by O2 and O3 122. - 4.8 Photolysis Rate as a Function of Altitude. - 4.9 Photodissociation of O3 to Produce O and O(1D). - 4.10 Photodissociation of NO2. - Problems. - References. - 5 Chemistry of the Stratosphere. - 5.1 Overview of Stratospheric Chemistry. - 5.2 Chapman Mechanism. - 5.3 Nitrogen Oxide Cycles. - 5.3.1 Stratospheric Source of NO* from N2O. - 5.3.2 NO* Cycles. - 5.4 HO* Cycles. - 5.5 Halogen Cycles. - 5.5.1 Chlorine Cycles. - 5.5.2 Bromine Cycles. - 5.6 Reservoir Species and Coupling of the Cycles. - 5.7 Ozone Hole. - 5.7.1 Polar Stratospheric Clouds. - 5.7.2 PSCs and the Ozone Hole. - 5.7.3 Arctic Ozone Hole. - 5.8 Heterogeneous (Nonpolar) Stratospheric Chemistry. - 5.8.1 The Stratospheric Aerosol Layer. - 5.8.2 Heterogeneous Hydrolysis of N2O5. - 5.8.3 Effect of Volcanoes on Stratospheric Ozone. - 5.9 Summary of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion. - 5.10 Transport and Mixing in the Stratosphere. - 5.11 Ozone Depletion Potential. - Problems. - References. - 6 Chemistry of the Troposphere. - 6.1 Production of Hydroxyl Radicals in the Troposphere. - 6.2 Basic Photochemical Cycle of NO2, NO, and O3. - 6.3 Atmospheric Chemistry of Carbon Monoxide. - 6.3.1 Low NO* Limit. - 6.3.2 High NO* Limit. - 6.3.3 Ozone Production Efficiency. - 6.3.4 Theoretical Maximum Yield of Ozone from CO Oxidation. - 6.4 Atmospheric Chemistry of Methane. - 6.5 The NO* and NOy, Families. - 6.5.1 Daytime Behavior. - 6.5.2 Nighttime Behavior. - 6.6 Ozone Budget of the Troposphere and Role of NO*. - 6.6.1 Ozone Budget of the Troposphere. - 6.6.2 Role of NO*. - 6.7 Tropospheric Reservoir Molecules. - 6.7.1 H2O2, CH3OOH, and HONO. - 6.7.2 Peroxyacyl Nitrates (PANs). - 6.8 Relative Roles of VOC and NOx in Ozone Formation. - 6.8.1 Importance of the VOC/NOx Ratio. - 6.8.2 Ozone Isopleth Plot. - 6.9 Simplified Organic/NOx Chemistry. - 6.10 Chemistry of Nonmethane Organic Compounds in the Troposphere. - 6.10.1 Alkanes. - 6.10.2 Alkenes. - 6.10.3 Aromatics. - 6.10.4 Aldehydes. - 6.10.5 Ketones. - 6.10.6 α, β-Unsaturated Carbonyls. - 6.10.7 Ethers. - 6.10.8 Alcohols. - 6.11 Atmospheric Chemistry of Biogenic Hydrocarbons. - 6.12 Atmospheric Chemistry of Reduced Nitrogen Compounds. - 6.12.1 Amines. - 6.12.2 Nitriles. - 6.12.3 Nitrites. - 6.13 Atmospheric Chemistry (Gas Phase) of Sulfur Compounds. - 6.13.1 Sulfur Oxides. - 6.13.2 Reduced Sulfur Compounds (Dimethyl Sulfide). - 6.14 Tropospheric Chemistry of Halogen Compounds. - 6.14.1 Chemical Cycles of Halogen Species. - 6.14.2 Tropospheric Chemistry of CFC Replacements: Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). - Problems. - References. - 7 Chemistry of the Atmospheric Aqueous Phase. - 7.1 Liquid Water in the Atmosphere. - 7.2 Absorption Equilibria and Henry's Law. - 7.3 Aqueous-Phase Chemical Equilibria. - 7.3.1 Water. - 7.3.2 Carbon Dioxide-Water Equilibrium. - 7.3.3 Sulfur Dioxide-Water Equilibrium. - 7.3.4 Ammonia-Water Equilibrium. - 7.3.5 Nitric Acid-Water Equilibrium. - 7.3.6 Equilibria of Other Important Atmospheric Gases. - 7.4 Aqueous-Phase Reaction Rates. - 7.5 S(IV)-S(VI) Transformation and Sulfur Chemistry. - 7.5.1 Oxidation of S(IV) by Dissolved O3. - 7.5.2 Oxidation of S(IV) by Hydrogen Peroxide. - 7.5.3 Oxidation of S(IV) by Organic Peroxides. - 7.5.4 Uncatalyzed Oxidation of S(IV) by O2. - 7.5.5 Oxidation of S(IV) by O2 Catalyzed by Iron and Manganese. - 7.5.6 Comparison of Aqueous-Phase S(IV) Oxidation Paths. - 7.6 Dynamic Behavior of Solutions with Aqueous-Phase Chemical Reactions. - 7.6.1 Closed System. - 7.6.2 Calculation of Concentration Changes in a Droplet with Aqueous-Phase Reactions. - Appendix 7.1 Thermodynamic and Kinetic Data. - Appendix 7.2 Additional Aqueous-Phase Sulfur Chemistry. - 7.A.1 S(IV) Oxidation by the OH Radical. - 7.A.2 Oxidation of S(IV) by Oxides of Nitrogen. - 7.A.3 Reaction of Dissolved SO2 with HCHO. - Appendix 7.3 Aqueous-Phase Nitrite and Nitrate Chemistry. - 7.A.4 NOx Oxidation. - 7.A.5 Nitrogen Radicals. - Appendix 7.4 Aqueous-Phase Organic Chemistry. - Appendix 7.5 Oxygen and Hydrogen Chemistry. - Problems. - References. - 8 Properties of the Atmospheric Aerosol. - 8.1 The Size Distribution Function. - 8.1.1 The Number Distribution nN(Dp). - 8.1.2 The Surface Area, Volume, and Mass Distributions. - 8.1.3 Distributions Based on In Dp and log Dp. - 8.1.4 Relating Size Distributions Based on Different Independent Variables. - 8.1.5 Properties of Size Distributions. - 8.1.6 The Lognormal Distribution. - 8.1.7 Plotting the Lognormal Distribution. - 8.1.8 Properties of the Lognormal Distribution. - 8.2 Ambient Aerosol Size Distributions. - 8.2.1 Urban Aerosols. - 8.2.2 Marine Aerosols. - 8.2.3 Rural Continental Aerosols. - 8.2.4 Remote Continental Aerosols. - 8.2.5 Free Tropospheric Aerosols. - 8.2.6 Polar Aerosols. - 8.2.7 Desert Aerosols. - 8.3 Aerosol Chemical Composition. - 8.4 Spatial and Temporal Variation. - 8.5 Vertical Variation. - Problems. - References. - 9 Dynamics of Single Aerosol Particles. - 9.1 Continuum and Noncontinuum Dynamics: The Mean Free Path. - 9.2 The Drag on a Single Particle: Stokes' Law. - 9.2.1 Corrections to Stokes' Law: The Drag Coefficient. - 9.2.2 Stokes' Law and Noncontinuum Effects: Slip Correction Factor. - 9.3 Gravitational Settling of an Aerosol Particle. - 9.4 Motion of an Aerosol Particle in an External Force Field. - 9.5 Brownian Motion of Aerosol Particles. - 9.5.1 Particle Diffusion. - 9.5.2 Aerosol Mobility and Drift Velocity. - 9.5.3 Mean Free Path of an Aerosol Particle. - 9.6 Aerosol and Fluid Motion. - 9.6.1 Motion of a Particle in an Idealized Flow (90° Corner). - 9.6.2 Stop Distance and Stokes Number. - 9.7 Equivalent Particle Diameters. - 9.7.1 Volume Equivalent Diameter. - 9.7.2 Stokes Diameter. - 9.7.3 Classical Aerodynamic Diameter. - 9.7-4 Electrical Mobility Equivalent Diameter. - Problems. - References. - 10 Thermodynamics of Aerosols. - 10.1 Thermodynamic Principles. - 10.1.1 Internal Energy and Chemical Potential. - 10.1.2 The Gibbs Free Energy, G. - 10.1.3 Conditions for Chemical Equilibrium. - 10.1.4 Chemical Potentials of Ideal Gases and Ideal-Gas Mixtures. - 10.1.5 Chemical Potential of Solutions. - 10.1.6 The Equilibrium Constant. - 10.2 Aerosol Liquid Water Content. - 10.2.1 Chemical Potential of Water in Atmospheric Particles. - 10.2.2 Temperature Dependence of the DRH. - 10.2.3 Deliquescence of Multicomponent Aerosols. - 10.2.4 Crystallization of Single and Multicomponent Salts. - 10.3 Equilibrium Vapor Pressure over a Curved Surface: The Kelvin Effect. - 10.4 Thermodynamics of Atmospheric Aerosol Systems. - 10.4.1 The H2SO4-H2O System. - 10.4.2 The Sulfuric Acid-Ammonia-Water System. - 10.4.3 The Ammonia-Nitric Acid-Water System. - 10.4.4 The Ammonia-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid-Water System. - 10.4.5 Other Inorganic Aerosol Species. - 10.4.6 Inorganic Aerosol Thermodynamic Models. - Problems. - References. - 11 Nucleation. - 11.1 Classical Theory of Homogeneous Nucleation: Kinetic Approach. - 11.1.1 The Forward Rate Constant βi. - 11.1.2 The Reverse Rate Constant γi. - 11.1.3 Derivation of the Nucleation Rate. - 11.2 Classical Homogeneous Nucleation Theory: Constrained Equilibrium Approach. - 11.2.1 Free Energy of i-mer Formation. - 11.2.2 Constrained Equilibrium Cluster Distribution. - 11.2.3 The Evaporation Coefficient γi. - 11.2.4 Nucleation Rate. - 11.3 Recapitulation of Classical Theory. - 11.4 Experimental Measurement of Nucleation Rates. - 11.4.1 Upward Thermal Diffusion Cloud Chamber. - 11.4.2 Fast Expansion Chamber. - 11.4.3 Turbulent Mixing Chambers. - 11.4.4 Experimental Evaluation of Classical Homogeneous Nucleation Theory. - 11.5 Modifications of the Classical Theory and More Rigorous Approaches. - 11.6 Binary Homogeneous Nucleation. - 11.7 Binary Nucleation in the H2SO4-H2O System. - 11.8 Heterogeneous Nucleation. - 11.8.1 Nucleation on an Insoluble Foreign Surface. - 11.8.2 Ion-Induced Nucleation. - 11.9 Nucleation in the Atmosphere. - Appendix 11 The Law of Mass Action. - Problems. - References. - 12 Mass Transfer Aspects of Atmospheric Chemistry. - 12.1 Mass and Heat Transfer to Atmospheric Particles. - 12.1.1 The Continuum Regime. - 12.1.2 The Kinetic Regime. - 12.1.3 The Transition Regime. - 12.1.4 The Accommodation Coefficient. - 12.2 Mass Transport Limitations in Aqueous-Phase Chemistry. - 12.2.1 Characteristic Time for Gas-Phase Diffusion to a Particle. - 12.2.2 Characteristic Time to Achieve Equilibrium in the Gas-Particle Interface. - 12.2.3 Characteristic Time of Aqueous Dissociation Reactions. - 12.2.4 Characteristic Time of Aqueous-Phase Diffusion in a Droplet. - 12.2.5 Characteristic Time for Aqueous-Phase Chemical Reactions. - 12.3 Mass Transport and Aqueous-Phase Chemistry. - 12.3.1 Gas-Phase Diffusion and Aqueous-Phase Reactions. - 12.3.2 Aqueous-Phase Diffusion and Reaction. - 12.3.3 Interfacial Mass Transport and Aqueous-Phase Reactions. - 12.3.4 Application to the S(IV)-Ozone Reaction. - 12.3.5 Application to the S(IV)-Hydrogen Peroxide Reaction. - 12.3.6 Calculation of Aqueous-Phase Reaction Rates. - 12.3.7 An Aqueous-Phase Chemistry/Mass Transport Model. - 12.4 Mass Transfer to Falling Drops. - 12.5 Characteristic Time for Atmospheric Aerosol Equilibrium . - 12.5.1 Solid Aerosol Particles. - 12.5.2 Aqueous Aerosol Particles. - Appendix 12 Solution of the Transient Gas-Phase Diffusion. - Problem Equations (12.4)-(12.7) . - Problems. - References. - 13 Dynamics of Aerosol Populations. - 13.1 Mathematical Representations of Aerosol Size Distributions. - 13.1.1 Discrete Distribution. - 13.1.2 Continuous Distribution. - 13.2 Condensation. - 13.2.1 The Condensation Equation. - 13.2.2 Solution of the Condensation Equation. - 13.3 Coagulation. - 13.3.1 Brownian Coagulation. - 13.3.2 The Coagulation Equation. - 13.3.3 Solution of the Coagulation Equation. - 13.4 The Discrete General Dynamic Equation. - 13.5 The Continuous General Dynamic Equation. - Appendix 13.1 Additional Mechanisms of Coagulation. - 13.A.1 Coagulation in Laminar Shear Flow. - 13.A.2 Coagulation in Turbulent Flow. - 13.A.3 Coagulation from Gravitational Settling. - 13.A.4 Brownian Coagulation and External Force Fields. - Appendix 13.2 Solution of (13.73). - Problems. - References. - 14 Organic Atmospheric Aerosols. - 14.1 Organic Aerosol Components. - 14.2 Elemental Carbon. - 14.2.1 Formation of Soot and Elemental Carbon. - 14.2.2 Emission Sources of Elemental Carbon. - 14.2.3 Ambient Elemental Carbon Concentrations. - 14.2.4 Ambient Elemental Carbon Size Distribution. - 14.3 Organic Carbon. - 14.3.1 Ambient Aerosol Organic Carbon Concentrations. - 14.3.2 Primary versus Secondary Organic Carbon. - 14.4 Primary Organic Carbon. - 14.4.1 Sources. - 14.4.2 Chemical Composition. - 14.4.3 Primary OC Size Distribution. - 14.5 Secondary Organic Carbon. - 14.5.1 Overview of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Pathways. - 14.5.2 Dissolution and Gas-Particle Partitioning of Organic Compounds. - 14.5.3 Adsorption and Gas-Particle Partitioning of Organic Compounds. - 14.5.4 Precursor Volatile Organic Compounds. - 14.5.5 SOA Yields. - 14.5.6 Chemical Composition. - 14.5.7 Physical Properties of SOA Components. - 14.5.8 Particle-Phase Chemistry. - 14.6 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). - 14.6.1 Emission Sources. - 14.6.2 Size Distributions. - 14.6.3 Atmospheric Chemistry. - 14.6.4 Partitioning between Gas and Aerosol Phases. - Appendix 14 Measurement of Elemental and Organic Carbon. - Problems. - References. - 15 Interaction of Aerosols with Radiation. - 15.1 Scattering and Absorption of Light by Small Particles. - 15.1.1 Rayleigh Scattering Regime. - 15.1.2 Geometric Scattering Regime. - 15.1.3 Scattering Phase Function. - 15.1.4 Extinction by an Ensemble of Particles. - 15.2 Visibility. - 15.3 Scattering, Absorption, and Extinction Coefficients from Mie Theory. - 15.4 Calculated Visibility Reduction Based on Atmospheric Data. - Appendix 15 Calculation of Scattering and Extinction Coefficients by Mie Theory. - Problems. - References. - 16 Meteorology of the Local Scale. - 16.1 Temperature in the Lower Atmosphere. - 16.1.1 Temperature Variation in a Neutral Atmosphere. - 16.1.2 Potential Temperature. - 16.1.3 Buoyancy of a Rising (or Falling) Air Parcel in the Atmosphere. - 16.2 Atmospheric Stability. - 16.3 Micrometeorology. - 16.3.1 Basic Equations of Atmospheric Fluid Mechanics. - 16.3.2 Turbulence. - 16.3.3 Equations for the Mean Quantities. - 16.3.4 Mixing-Length Models for Turbulent Transport. - 16.4 Variation of Wind with Height in the Atmosphere. - 16.4.1 Mean Velocity in the Adiabatic Surface Layer over a Smooth Surface. - 16.4.2 Mean Velocity in the Adiabatic Surface Layer over a Rough Surface. - 16.4.3 Mean Velocity Profiles in the Nonadiabatic Surface Layer. - 16.4.4 The Pasquill Stability Classes—Estimation of L. - 16.4.5 Empirical Equation for the Mean Wind Speed 752. - Appendix 16 Derivation of the Basic Equations of Surface Layer Atmospheric Fluid Mechanics. - Problems. - References. - 17 Cloud Physics. - 17.1 Properties of Water and Water Solutions. - 17.1.1 Specific Heat of Water and Ice. - 17.1.2 Latent Heats of Evaporation and of Melting for Water. - 17.1.3 Water Surface Tension. - 17.2 Water Equilibrium in the Atmosphere. - 17.2.1 Equilibrium of a Flat Pure Water Surface with the Atmosphere. - 17.2.2 Equilibrium of a Pure Water Droplet. - 17.2.3 Equilibrium of a Flat Water Solution. - 17.2.4 Atmospheric Equilibrium of an Aqueous Solution Drop. - 17.2.5 Atmospheric Equilibrium of an Aqueous Solution Drop Containing an Insoluble Substance. - 17.3 Cloud and Fog Formation. - 17.3.1 Isobaric Cooling. - 17.3.2 Adiabatic Cooling. - 17.3.3 Cooling with Entrainment. - 17.3.4 A Simplified Mathematical Description of Cloud Formation. - 17.4 Growth Rate of Individual Cloud Droplets. - 17.5 Growth of a Droplet Population. - 17.6 Cloud Condensation Nuclei. - 17.7 Cloud Processing of Aerosols. - 17.7.1 Nucleation Scavenging of Aerosols by Clouds. - 17.7.2 Chemical Composition of Cloud Droplets. - 17.7.3 Nonraining Cloud Effects on Aerosol Concentrations. - 17.7.4 Interstitial Aerosol Scavenging by Cloud Droplets. - 17.7.5 Aerosol Nucleation Near Clouds. - 17.8 Other Forms of Water in the Atmosphere. - 17.8.1 Ice Clouds. - 17.8.2 Rain. - Appendix 17 Extended Köhler Theory. - 17.A.1 Modified Form of Kohler Theory for a Soluble Trace Gas. - 17.A.2 Modified Form of the Kohler Theory for a Slightly Soluble Substance. - 17.A.3 Modified Form of the Kohler Theory for a Surface-Active Solute. - 17.A.4 Examples. - Problems. - References. - 18 Atmospheric Diffusion. - 18.1 Eulerian Approach. - 18.2 Lagrangian Approach. - 18.3 Comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian Approaches. - 18.4 Equations Governing the Mean Concentration of Species in Turbulence. - 18.4.1 Eulerian Approaches. - 18.4.2 Lagrangian Approaches. - 18.5 Solution of the Atmospheric Diffusion Equation for an Instantaneous Source. - 18.6 Mean Concentration from Continuous Sources. - 18.6.1 Lagrangian Approach. - 18.6.2 Eulerian Approach. - 18.6.3 Summary of Continuous Point Source Solutions. - 18.7 Statistical Theory of Turbulent Diffusion. - 18.7.1 Qualitative Features of Atmospheric Diffusion. - 18.7.2 Motion of a Single Particle Relative to a Fixed Axis. - 18.8 Summary of Atmospheric Diffusion Theories. - 18.9 Analytical Solutions for Atmospheric Diffusion: The Gaussian Plume Equation and Others. - 18.9.1 Gaussian Concentration Distributions. - 18.9.2 Derivation of the Gaussian Plume Equation as a Solution of the Atmospheric Diffusion Equation. - 18.9.3 Summary of Gaussian Point Source Diffusion Formulas. - 18.10 Dispersion Parameters in Gaussian Models. - 18.10.1 Correlations for σy and σz Based on Similarity Theory. - 18.10.2 Correlations for σy and σz Based on Pasquill Stability Classes. - 18.11 Plume Rise. - 18.12 Functional Forms of Mean Windspeed and Eddy Diffusivities. - 18.12.1 Mean Windspeed. - 18.12.2 Vertical Eddy Diffusion Coefficient Kzz. - 18.12.3 Horizontal Eddy Diffusion Coefficients Kzz and Kyy. - . - 18.13 Solutions of the Steady-State Atmospheric Diffusion Equation. - 18.13.1 Diffusion from a Point Source. - 18.13.2 Diffusion from a Line Source. - Appendix 18.1 Further Solutions of Atmospheric Diffusion. - Problems. - 18.A.1 Solution of (18.29)-(18.31). - 18.A.2 Solution of (18.50) and (18.51). - 18.A.3 Solution of (18.59)-(18.61). - Appendix 18.2 Analytical Properties of the Gaussian Plume Equation. - Problems. - References. - 19 Dry Deposition. - 19.1 Deposition Velocity. - 19.2 Resistance Model for Dry Deposition. - 19.3 Aerodynamic Resistance. - 19.4 Quasi-Laminar Resistance. - 19.4.1 Gases. - 19.4.2 Particles. - 19.5 Surface Resistance. - 19.5.1 Surface Resistance for Dry Deposition of Gases to Water. - 19.5.2 Surface Resistance for Dry Deposition of Gases to Vegetation. - 19.6 Measurement of Dry Deposition. - 19.6.1 Direct Methods. - 19.6.2 Indirect Methods. - 19.6.3 Comparison of Methods. - 19.7 Some Comments on Modeling and Measurement of Dry Deposition. - Problems. - References. - 20 Wet Deposition. - 20.1 General Representation of Atmospheric Wet Removal Processes. - 20.2 Below-Cloud Scavenging of Gases. - 20.2.1 Below-Cloud Scavenging of an Irreversibly Soluble Gas. - 20.2.2 Below-Cloud Scavenging of a Reversibly Soluble Gas. - 20.3 Precipitation Scavenging of Particles. - 20.3.1 Raindrop-Aerosol Collision Efficiency. - 20.3.2 Scavenging Rates. - 20.4 In-Cloud Scavenging. - 20.5 Acid Deposition. - 20.5.1 Acid Rain Overview. - 20.5.2 Acid Rain Data and Trends. - 20.5.3 Effects of Acid Deposition. - 20.5.4 Cloudwater Deposition. - 20.5.5 Fogs and Wet Deposition. - 20.6 Acid Deposition Process Synthesis. - 20.6.1 Chemical Species Involved in Acid Deposition. - 20.6.2 Dry versus Wet Deposition. - 20.6.3 Chemical Pathways for Sulfate and Nitrate Production. - 20.6.4 Source-Receptor Relationships. - 20.6.5 Linearity. - Problems. - References. - 21 General Circulation of the Atmosphere. - 21.1 Hadley Cell. - 21.2 Ferrell Cell and Polar Cell. - 21.3 Coriolis Force. - 21.4 Geostrophic Windspeed. - 21.4.1 Buys Ballot's Law. - 21.4.2 Ekman Spiral. - 21.5 The Thermal Wind Relation. - 21.6 Stratospheric Dynamics. - 21.7 The Hydrologic Cycle. - Appendix 21 Ocean Circulation. - Problems. - References. - 22 Global Cycles: Sulfur and Carbon. - 22.1 The Atmospheric Sulfur Cycle. - 22.2 The Global Carbon Cycle. - 22.2.1 Carbon Dioxide. - 22.2.2 Compartmental Model of the Global Carbon Cycle. - 22.2.3 Atmospheric Lifetime of CO2. - 22.3 Analytical Solution for a Steady-State Four-Compartment Model of the Atmosphere. - Problems. - References. - 23 Climate and Chemical Composition of the Atmosphere. - 23.1 The Global Temperature Record. - 23.2 Solar Variability. - 23.3 Radiative Forcing. - 23.4 Climate Sensitivity. - 23.5 Relative Radiative Forcing Indices. - 23.6 Unrealized Warming. - 23.7 Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Change. - 23.7.1 Indirect Chemical Impacts. - 23.7.2 Atmospheric Lifetimes and Adjustment Times. - 23.8 Radiative Effects of Clouds. - Problems. - References. - 24 Aerosols and Climate. - 24.1 Scattering-Absorbing Model of an Aerosol Layer. - 24.2 Cooling versus Heating of an Aerosol Layer. - 24.3 Scattering Model of an Aerosol Layer for a Nonabsorbing Aerosol. - 24.4 Upscatter Fraction. - 24.5 Optical Depth and Column Forcing. - 24.6 Internal and External Mixtures. - 24.7 Top-of-the-Atmosphere versus Surface Forcing. - 24.8 Indirect Effects of Aerosols on Climate. - 24.8.1 Radiative Model for a Cloudy Atmosphere. - 24.8.2 Sensitivity of Cloud Albedo to Cloud Droplet Number Concentration. - 24.8.3 Relation of Cloud Droplet Number Concentration to Aerosol Concentrations. - Problems. - References. - 25 Atmospheric Chemical Transport Models. - 25.1 Introduction. - 25.1.1 Model Types. - 25.1.2 Types of Atmospheric Chemical Transport Models. - 25.2 Box Models. - 25.2.1 The Eulerian Box Model. - 25.2.2 A Lagrangian Box Model. - 25.3 Three-Dimensional Atmospheric Chemical Transport Models. - 25.3.1 Coordinate System—Uneven Terrain. - 25.3.2 Initial Conditions. - 25.3.3 Boundary Conditions. - 25.4 One-Dimensional Lagrangian Models. - 25.5 Other Forms of Chemical Transport Models. - 25.5.1 Atmospheric Diffusion Equation Expressed in Terms of Mixing Ratio. - 25.5.2 Pressure-Based Coordinate System. - 25.5.3 Spherical Coordinates. - 25.6 Numerical Solution of Chemical Transport Models. - 25.6.1 Coupling Problem—Operator Splitting. - 25.6.2 Chemical Kinetics. - 25.6.3 Diffusion. - 25.6.4 Advection. - 25.7 Model Evaluation. - Problems. - References. - 26 Statistical Models. - 26.1 Receptor Modeling Methods. - 26.1.1 Chemical Mass Balance (CMB). - 26.1.2 Factor Analysis. - 26.1.3 Empirical Orthogonal Function Receptor Models. - 26.2 Probability Distributions for Air Pollutant Concentrations. - 26.2.1 The Lognormal Distribution. - 26.2.2 The Weibull Distribution. - 26.3 Estimation of Parameters in the Distributions. - 26.3.1 Method of Quantiles. - 26.3.2 Method of Moments. - 26.4 Order Statistics of Air Quality Data. - 26.4.1 Basic Notions and Terminology of Order Statistics. - 26.4.2 Extreme Values. - 26.5 Exceedances of Critical Levels. - 26.6 Alternative Forms of Air Quality Standards. - 26.7 Relating Current and Future Air Pollutant Statistical Distributions. - Problems. - References. - Appendix A Units and Physical Constants. - A.1 SI Base Units. - A.2 SI Derived Units. - A.3 Fundamental Physical Constants. - A.4 Properties of the Atmosphere and Water. - A.5 Units for Representing Chemical Reactions. - A.6 Concentrations in the Aqueous Phase. - A.7 Symbols for Concentration. - References. - Appendix B Rate Constants of Atmospheric Chemical Reactions. - References. - Index.
Summary: The second edition of this internationally acclaimed text presents the latest developments in atmospheric science. It continues to be the premier text for both a rigorous and a complete treatment of the chemistry of the atmosphere, covering such pivotal topics as: chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere; formation, growth, dynamics, and properties of aerosols; meteorology of air pollution; transport, diffusion, and removal of species in the atmosphere; formation and chemistry of clouds; interaction of atmospheric chemistry and climate; radiative and climatic effects of gases and particles; formulation of mathematical chemical/transport models of the atmosphere. All chapters develop results based on fundamental principles, enabling the reader to build a solid understanding of the science underlying atmospheric processes. Among the new material are three new chapters: Atmospheric radiation and photochemistry, gernal circulation of the atmosphere, and global cycles. In addition, the chapters Stratospheric chemistry, tropospheric chemistry, and organic atmospheric aerosols have been rewritten to reflect the latest findings. Readers familiar with the first edition will discover a text with new structures and new features that greatly aid learning. Many examples are set off in the text to help readers work through the application of concepts. Advanced material has been moved to appendices. Finally, many new problems, coded by degree of difficulty, have been added. A solutions manual is available. Throughly updated and restructured, the second edition of Atmospheric chemistry and physics is an ideal textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, as well as a reference for researchers in environmental engineering, meteorology, chemistry, and the atmospheric sciences.
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MAB0014.001: AWI A12-13-0137

CONTENTS: Preface to the Second Edition. - Preface to the First Edition. - 1 The Atmosphere. - 1.1 History and Evolution of the Earth's Atmosphere. - 1.2 Climate. - 1.3 The Layers of the Atmosphere. - 1.4 Pressure in the Atmosphere. - 1.4.1 Units of Pressure. - 1.4.2 Variation of Pressure with Height in the Atmosphere. - 1.5 Temperature in the Atmosphere. - 1.6 Expressing the Amount of a Substance in the Atmosphere. - 1.7 Spatial and Temporal Scales of Atmospheric Processes. - Problems. - References. - 2 Atmospheric Trace Constituents. - 2.1 Atmospheric Lifetime. - 2.2 Sulfur-Containing Compounds. - 2.2.1 Dimethyl Sulfide (CH3SCH3). - 2.2.2 Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS). - 2.2.3 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2). - 2.3 Nitrogen-Containing Compounds. - 2.3.1 Nitrous Oxide (N2O). - 2.3.2 Nitrogen Oxides (NO* = NO + NO2). - 2.3.3 Reactive Odd Nitrogen (NOy). - 2.3.4 Ammonia (NH3). - 2.4 Carbon-Containing Compounds. - 2.4.1 Classification of Hydrocarbons. - 2.4.2 Methane. - 2.4.3 Volatile Organic Compounds. - 2.4.4 Biogenic Hydrocarbons. - 2.4.5 Carbon Monoxide. - 2.4.6 Carbon Dioxide. - 2.5 Halogen-Containing Compounds. - 2.5.1 Methyl Chloride (CH3C1). - 2.5.2 Methyl Bromide (CH3Br). - 2.6 Atmospheric Ozone. - 2.7 Particulate Matter (Aerosols). - 2.7.1 Stratospheric Aerosol. - 2.7.2 Chemical Components of Tropospheric Aerosol. - 2.7.3 Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). - 2.7.4 Sizes of Atmospheric Particles. - 2.7.5 Sources of Atmospheric Paniculate. - 2.7.6 Carbonaceous Particles. - 2.7.7 Mineral Dust. - 2.8 Emission Inventories. - 2.9 Biomass Burning. - Appendix 2.1 Air Pollution Legislation. - Appendix 2.2 Hazardous Air Pollutants (Air Toxics). - Problems. - References. - 3 Chemical Kinetics. - 3.1 Order of Reaction. - 3.2 Theories of Chemical Kinetics. - 3.2.1 Collision Theory. - 3.2.2 Transition State Theory. - 3.2.3 Potential Energy Surface for a Bimolecular Reaction. - 3.3 The Pseudo-Steady-State Approximation. - 3.4 Reactions of Excited Species. - 3.5 Termolecular Reactions. - 3.6 Chemical Families. - 3.7 Gas-Surface Reactions. - Appendix 3 Free Radicals. - Problems. - References. - 4 Atmospheric Radiation and Photochemistry. - 4.1 Radiation. - 4.1.1 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation. - 4.1.2 Energy Balance for Earth and Atmosphere. - 4.1.3 Solar Variability. - 4.2 Radiative Flux in the Atmosphere. - 4.3 Beer-Lambert Law and Optical Depth. - 4.4 Actinic Flux. - 4.5 Atmospheric Photochemistry. - 4.6 Absorption of Radiation by Atmospheric Gases. - 4.7 Absorption by O2 and O3 122. - 4.8 Photolysis Rate as a Function of Altitude. - 4.9 Photodissociation of O3 to Produce O and O(1D). - 4.10 Photodissociation of NO2. - Problems. - References. - 5 Chemistry of the Stratosphere. - 5.1 Overview of Stratospheric Chemistry. - 5.2 Chapman Mechanism. - 5.3 Nitrogen Oxide Cycles. - 5.3.1 Stratospheric Source of NO* from N2O. - 5.3.2 NO* Cycles. - 5.4 HO* Cycles. - 5.5 Halogen Cycles. - 5.5.1 Chlorine Cycles. - 5.5.2 Bromine Cycles. - 5.6 Reservoir Species and Coupling of the Cycles. - 5.7 Ozone Hole. - 5.7.1 Polar Stratospheric Clouds. - 5.7.2 PSCs and the Ozone Hole. - 5.7.3 Arctic Ozone Hole. - 5.8 Heterogeneous (Nonpolar) Stratospheric Chemistry. - 5.8.1 The Stratospheric Aerosol Layer. - 5.8.2 Heterogeneous Hydrolysis of N2O5. - 5.8.3 Effect of Volcanoes on Stratospheric Ozone. - 5.9 Summary of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion. - 5.10 Transport and Mixing in the Stratosphere. - 5.11 Ozone Depletion Potential. - Problems. - References. - 6 Chemistry of the Troposphere. - 6.1 Production of Hydroxyl Radicals in the Troposphere. - 6.2 Basic Photochemical Cycle of NO2, NO, and O3. - 6.3 Atmospheric Chemistry of Carbon Monoxide. - 6.3.1 Low NO* Limit. - 6.3.2 High NO* Limit. - 6.3.3 Ozone Production Efficiency. - 6.3.4 Theoretical Maximum Yield of Ozone from CO Oxidation. - 6.4 Atmospheric Chemistry of Methane. - 6.5 The NO* and NOy, Families. - 6.5.1 Daytime Behavior. - 6.5.2 Nighttime Behavior. - 6.6 Ozone Budget of the Troposphere and Role of NO*. - 6.6.1 Ozone Budget of the Troposphere. - 6.6.2 Role of NO*. - 6.7 Tropospheric Reservoir Molecules. - 6.7.1 H2O2, CH3OOH, and HONO. - 6.7.2 Peroxyacyl Nitrates (PANs). - 6.8 Relative Roles of VOC and NOx in Ozone Formation. - 6.8.1 Importance of the VOC/NOx Ratio. - 6.8.2 Ozone Isopleth Plot. - 6.9 Simplified Organic/NOx Chemistry. - 6.10 Chemistry of Nonmethane Organic Compounds in the Troposphere. - 6.10.1 Alkanes. - 6.10.2 Alkenes. - 6.10.3 Aromatics. - 6.10.4 Aldehydes. - 6.10.5 Ketones. - 6.10.6 α, β-Unsaturated Carbonyls. - 6.10.7 Ethers. - 6.10.8 Alcohols. - 6.11 Atmospheric Chemistry of Biogenic Hydrocarbons. - 6.12 Atmospheric Chemistry of Reduced Nitrogen Compounds. - 6.12.1 Amines. - 6.12.2 Nitriles. - 6.12.3 Nitrites. - 6.13 Atmospheric Chemistry (Gas Phase) of Sulfur Compounds. - 6.13.1 Sulfur Oxides. - 6.13.2 Reduced Sulfur Compounds (Dimethyl Sulfide). - 6.14 Tropospheric Chemistry of Halogen Compounds. - 6.14.1 Chemical Cycles of Halogen Species. - 6.14.2 Tropospheric Chemistry of CFC Replacements: Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). - Problems. - References. - 7 Chemistry of the Atmospheric Aqueous Phase. - 7.1 Liquid Water in the Atmosphere. - 7.2 Absorption Equilibria and Henry's Law. - 7.3 Aqueous-Phase Chemical Equilibria. - 7.3.1 Water. - 7.3.2 Carbon Dioxide-Water Equilibrium. - 7.3.3 Sulfur Dioxide-Water Equilibrium. - 7.3.4 Ammonia-Water Equilibrium. - 7.3.5 Nitric Acid-Water Equilibrium. - 7.3.6 Equilibria of Other Important Atmospheric Gases. - 7.4 Aqueous-Phase Reaction Rates. - 7.5 S(IV)-S(VI) Transformation and Sulfur Chemistry. - 7.5.1 Oxidation of S(IV) by Dissolved O3. - 7.5.2 Oxidation of S(IV) by Hydrogen Peroxide. - 7.5.3 Oxidation of S(IV) by Organic Peroxides. - 7.5.4 Uncatalyzed Oxidation of S(IV) by O2. - 7.5.5 Oxidation of S(IV) by O2 Catalyzed by Iron and Manganese. - 7.5.6 Comparison of Aqueous-Phase S(IV) Oxidation Paths. - 7.6 Dynamic Behavior of Solutions with Aqueous-Phase Chemical Reactions. - 7.6.1 Closed System. - 7.6.2 Calculation of Concentration Changes in a Droplet with Aqueous-Phase Reactions. - Appendix 7.1 Thermodynamic and Kinetic Data. - Appendix 7.2 Additional Aqueous-Phase Sulfur Chemistry. - 7.A.1 S(IV) Oxidation by the OH Radical. - 7.A.2 Oxidation of S(IV) by Oxides of Nitrogen. - 7.A.3 Reaction of Dissolved SO2 with HCHO. - Appendix 7.3 Aqueous-Phase Nitrite and Nitrate Chemistry. - 7.A.4 NOx Oxidation. - 7.A.5 Nitrogen Radicals. - Appendix 7.4 Aqueous-Phase Organic Chemistry. - Appendix 7.5 Oxygen and Hydrogen Chemistry. - Problems. - References. - 8 Properties of the Atmospheric Aerosol. - 8.1 The Size Distribution Function. - 8.1.1 The Number Distribution nN(Dp). - 8.1.2 The Surface Area, Volume, and Mass Distributions. - 8.1.3 Distributions Based on In Dp and log Dp. - 8.1.4 Relating Size Distributions Based on Different Independent Variables. - 8.1.5 Properties of Size Distributions. - 8.1.6 The Lognormal Distribution. - 8.1.7 Plotting the Lognormal Distribution. - 8.1.8 Properties of the Lognormal Distribution. - 8.2 Ambient Aerosol Size Distributions. - 8.2.1 Urban Aerosols. - 8.2.2 Marine Aerosols. - 8.2.3 Rural Continental Aerosols. - 8.2.4 Remote Continental Aerosols. - 8.2.5 Free Tropospheric Aerosols. - 8.2.6 Polar Aerosols. - 8.2.7 Desert Aerosols. - 8.3 Aerosol Chemical Composition. - 8.4 Spatial and Temporal Variation. - 8.5 Vertical Variation. - Problems. - References. - 9 Dynamics of Single Aerosol Particles. - 9.1 Continuum and Noncontinuum Dynamics: The Mean Free Path. - 9.2 The Drag on a Single Particle: Stokes' Law. - 9.2.1 Corrections to Stokes' Law: The Drag Coefficient. - 9.2.2 Stokes' Law and Noncontinuum Effects: Slip Correction Factor. - 9.3 Gravitational Settling of an Aerosol Particle. - 9.4 Motion of an Aerosol Particle in an External Force Field. - 9.5 Brownian Motion of Aerosol Particles. - 9.5.1 Particle Diffusion. - 9.5.2 Aerosol Mobility and Drift Velocity. - 9.5.3 Mean Free Path of an Aerosol Particle. - 9.6 Aerosol and Fluid Motion. - 9.6.1 Motion of a Particle in an Idealized Flow (90° Corner). - 9.6.2 Stop Distance and Stokes Number. - 9.7 Equivalent Particle Diameters. - 9.7.1 Volume Equivalent Diameter. - 9.7.2 Stokes Diameter. - 9.7.3 Classical Aerodynamic Diameter. - 9.7-4 Electrical Mobility Equivalent Diameter. - Problems. - References. - 10 Thermodynamics of Aerosols. - 10.1 Thermodynamic Principles. - 10.1.1 Internal Energy and Chemical Potential. - 10.1.2 The Gibbs Free Energy, G. - 10.1.3 Conditions for Chemical Equilibrium. - 10.1.4 Chemical Potentials of Ideal Gases and Ideal-Gas Mixtures. - 10.1.5 Chemical Potential of Solutions. - 10.1.6 The Equilibrium Constant. - 10.2 Aerosol Liquid Water Content. - 10.2.1 Chemical Potential of Water in Atmospheric Particles. - 10.2.2 Temperature Dependence of the DRH. - 10.2.3 Deliquescence of Multicomponent Aerosols. - 10.2.4 Crystallization of Single and Multicomponent Salts. - 10.3 Equilibrium Vapor Pressure over a Curved Surface: The Kelvin Effect. - 10.4 Thermodynamics of Atmospheric Aerosol Systems. - 10.4.1 The H2SO4-H2O System. - 10.4.2 The Sulfuric Acid-Ammonia-Water System. - 10.4.3 The Ammonia-Nitric Acid-Water System. - 10.4.4 The Ammonia-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid-Water System. - 10.4.5 Other Inorganic Aerosol Species. - 10.4.6 Inorganic Aerosol Thermodynamic Models. - Problems. - References. - 11 Nucleation. - 11.1 Classical Theory of Homogeneous Nucleation: Kinetic Approach. - 11.1.1 The Forward Rate Constant βi. - 11.1.2 The Reverse Rate Constant γi. - 11.1.3 Derivation of the Nucleation Rate. - 11.2 Classical Homogeneous Nucleation Theory: Constrained Equilibrium Approach. - 11.2.1 Free Energy of i-mer Formation. - 11.2.2 Constrained Equilibrium Cluster Distribution. - 11.2.3 The Evaporation Coefficient γi. - 11.2.4 Nucleation Rate. - 11.3 Recapitulation of Classical Theory. - 11.4 Experimental Measurement of Nucleation Rates. - 11.4.1 Upward Thermal Diffusion Cloud Chamber. - 11.4.2 Fast Expansion Chamber. - 11.4.3 Turbulent Mixing Chambers. - 11.4.4 Experimental Evaluation of Classical Homogeneous Nucleation Theory. - 11.5 Modifications of the Classical Theory and More Rigorous Approaches. - 11.6 Binary Homogeneous Nucleation. - 11.7 Binary Nucleation in the H2SO4-H2O System. - 11.8 Heterogeneous Nucleation. - 11.8.1 Nucleation on an Insoluble Foreign Surface. - 11.8.2 Ion-Induced Nucleation. - 11.9 Nucleation in the Atmosphere. - Appendix 11 The Law of Mass Action. - Problems. - References. - 12 Mass Transfer Aspects of Atmospheric Chemistry. - 12.1 Mass and Heat Transfer to Atmospheric Particles. - 12.1.1 The Continuum Regime. - 12.1.2 The Kinetic Regime. - 12.1.3 The Transition Regime. - 12.1.4 The Accommodation Coefficient. - 12.2 Mass Transport Limitations in Aqueous-Phase Chemistry. - 12.2.1 Characteristic Time for Gas-Phase Diffusion to a Particle. - 12.2.2 Characteristic Time to Achieve Equilibrium in the Gas-Particle Interface. - 12.2.3 Characteristic Time of Aqueous Dissociation Reactions. - 12.2.4 Characteristic Time of Aqueous-Phase Diffusion in a Droplet. - 12.2.5 Characteristic Time for Aqueous-Phase Chemical Reactions. - 12.3 Mass Transport and Aqueous-Phase Chemistry. - 12.3.1 Gas-Phase Diffusion and Aqueous-Phase Reactions. - 12.3.2 Aqueous-Phase Diffusion and Reaction. - 12.3.3 Interfacial Mass Transport and Aqueous-Phase Reactions. - 12.3.4 Application to the S(IV)-Ozone Reaction. - 12.3.5 Application to the S(IV)-Hydrogen Peroxide Reaction. - 12.3.6 Calculation of Aqueous-Phase Reaction Rates. - 12.3.7 An Aqueous-Phase Chemistry/Mass Transport Model. - 12.4 Mass Transfer to Falling Drops. - 12.5 Characteristic Time for Atmospheric Aerosol Equilibrium . - 12.5.1 Solid Aerosol Particles. - 12.5.2 Aqueous Aerosol Particles. - Appendix 12 Solution of the Transient Gas-Phase Diffusion. - Problem Equations (12.4)-(12.7) . - Problems. - References. - 13 Dynamics of Aerosol Populations. - 13.1 Mathematical Representations of Aerosol Size Distributions. - 13.1.1 Discrete Distribution. - 13.1.2 Continuous Distribution. - 13.2 Condensation. - 13.2.1 The Condensation Equation. - 13.2.2 Solution of the Condensation Equation. - 13.3 Coagulation. - 13.3.1 Brownian Coagulation. - 13.3.2 The Coagulation Equation. - 13.3.3 Solution of the Coagulation Equation. - 13.4 The Discrete General Dynamic Equation. - 13.5 The Continuous General Dynamic Equation. - Appendix 13.1 Additional Mechanisms of Coagulation. - 13.A.1 Coagulation in Laminar Shear Flow. - 13.A.2 Coagulation in Turbulent Flow. - 13.A.3 Coagulation from Gravitational Settling. - 13.A.4 Brownian Coagulation and External Force Fields. - Appendix 13.2 Solution of (13.73). - Problems. - References. - 14 Organic Atmospheric Aerosols. - 14.1 Organic Aerosol Components. - 14.2 Elemental Carbon. - 14.2.1 Formation of Soot and Elemental Carbon. - 14.2.2 Emission Sources of Elemental Carbon. - 14.2.3 Ambient Elemental Carbon Concentrations. - 14.2.4 Ambient Elemental Carbon Size Distribution. - 14.3 Organic Carbon. - 14.3.1 Ambient Aerosol Organic Carbon Concentrations. - 14.3.2 Primary versus Secondary Organic Carbon. - 14.4 Primary Organic Carbon. - 14.4.1 Sources. - 14.4.2 Chemical Composition. - 14.4.3 Primary OC Size Distribution. - 14.5 Secondary Organic Carbon. - 14.5.1 Overview of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Pathways. - 14.5.2 Dissolution and Gas-Particle Partitioning of Organic Compounds. - 14.5.3 Adsorption and Gas-Particle Partitioning of Organic Compounds. - 14.5.4 Precursor Volatile Organic Compounds. - 14.5.5 SOA Yields. - 14.5.6 Chemical Composition. - 14.5.7 Physical Properties of SOA Components. - 14.5.8 Particle-Phase Chemistry. - 14.6 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). - 14.6.1 Emission Sources. - 14.6.2 Size Distributions. - 14.6.3 Atmospheric Chemistry. - 14.6.4 Partitioning between Gas and Aerosol Phases. - Appendix 14 Measurement of Elemental and Organic Carbon. - Problems. - References. - 15 Interaction of Aerosols with Radiation. - 15.1 Scattering and Absorption of Light by Small Particles. - 15.1.1 Rayleigh Scattering Regime. - 15.1.2 Geometric Scattering Regime. - 15.1.3 Scattering Phase Function. - 15.1.4 Extinction by an Ensemble of Particles. - 15.2 Visibility. - 15.3 Scattering, Absorption, and Extinction Coefficients from Mie Theory. - 15.4 Calculated Visibility Reduction Based on Atmospheric Data. - Appendix 15 Calculation of Scattering and Extinction Coefficients by Mie Theory. - Problems. - References. - 16 Meteorology of the Local Scale. - 16.1 Temperature in the Lower Atmosphere. - 16.1.1 Temperature Variation in a Neutral Atmosphere. - 16.1.2 Potential Temperature. - 16.1.3 Buoyancy of a Rising (or Falling) Air Parcel in the Atmosphere. - 16.2 Atmospheric Stability. - 16.3 Micrometeorology. - 16.3.1 Basic Equations of Atmospheric Fluid Mechanics. - 16.3.2 Turbulence. - 16.3.3 Equations for the Mean Quantities. - 16.3.4 Mixing-Length Models for Turbulent Transport. - 16.4 Variation of Wind with Height in the Atmosphere. - 16.4.1 Mean Velocity in the Adiabatic Surface Layer over a Smooth Surface. - 16.4.2 Mean Velocity in the Adiabatic Surface Layer over a Rough Surface. - 16.4.3 Mean Velocity Profiles in the Nonadiabatic Surface Layer. - 16.4.4 The Pasquill Stability Classes—Estimation of L. - 16.4.5 Empirical Equation for the Mean Wind Speed 752. - Appendix 16 Derivation of the Basic Equations of Surface Layer Atmospheric Fluid Mechanics. - Problems. - References. - 17 Cloud Physics. - 17.1 Properties of Water and Water Solutions. - 17.1.1 Specific Heat of Water and Ice. - 17.1.2 Latent Heats of Evaporation and of Melting for Water. - 17.1.3 Water Surface Tension. - 17.2 Water Equilibrium in the Atmosphere. - 17.2.1 Equilibrium of a Flat Pure Water Surface with the Atmosphere. - 17.2.2 Equilibrium of a Pure Water Droplet. - 17.2.3 Equilibrium of a Flat Water Solution. - 17.2.4 Atmospheric Equilibrium of an Aqueous Solution Drop. - 17.2.5 Atmospheric Equilibrium of an Aqueous Solution Drop Containing an Insoluble Substance. - 17.3 Cloud and Fog Formation. - 17.3.1 Isobaric Cooling. - 17.3.2 Adiabatic Cooling. - 17.3.3 Cooling with Entrainment. - 17.3.4 A Simplified Mathematical Description of Cloud Formation. - 17.4 Growth Rate of Individual Cloud Droplets. - 17.5 Growth of a Droplet Population. - 17.6 Cloud Condensation Nuclei. - 17.7 Cloud Processing of Aerosols. - 17.7.1 Nucleation Scavenging of Aerosols by Clouds. - 17.7.2 Chemical Composition of Cloud Droplets. - 17.7.3 Nonraining Cloud Effects on Aerosol Concentrations. - 17.7.4 Interstitial Aerosol Scavenging by Cloud Droplets. - 17.7.5 Aerosol Nucleation Near Clouds. - 17.8 Other Forms of Water in the Atmosphere. - 17.8.1 Ice Clouds. - 17.8.2 Rain. - Appendix 17 Extended Köhler Theory. - 17.A.1 Modified Form of Kohler Theory for a Soluble Trace Gas. - 17.A.2 Modified Form of the Kohler Theory for a Slightly Soluble Substance. - 17.A.3 Modified Form of the Kohler Theory for a Surface-Active Solute. - 17.A.4 Examples. - Problems. - References. - 18 Atmospheric Diffusion. - 18.1 Eulerian Approach. - 18.2 Lagrangian Approach. - 18.3 Comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian Approaches. - 18.4 Equations Governing the Mean Concentration of Species in Turbulence. - 18.4.1 Eulerian Approaches. - 18.4.2 Lagrangian Approaches. - 18.5 Solution of the Atmospheric Diffusion Equation for an Instantaneous Source. - 18.6 Mean Concentration from Continuous Sources. - 18.6.1 Lagrangian Approach. - 18.6.2 Eulerian Approach. - 18.6.3 Summary of Continuous Point Source Solutions. - 18.7 Statistical Theory of Turbulent Diffusion. - 18.7.1 Qualitative Features of Atmospheric Diffusion. - 18.7.2 Motion of a Single Particle Relative to a Fixed Axis. - 18.8 Summary of Atmospheric Diffusion Theories. - 18.9 Analytical Solutions for Atmospheric Diffusion: The Gaussian Plume Equation and Others. - 18.9.1 Gaussian Concentration Distributions. - 18.9.2 Derivation of the Gaussian Plume Equation as a Solution of the Atmospheric Diffusion Equation. - 18.9.3 Summary of Gaussian Point Source Diffusion Formulas. - 18.10 Dispersion Parameters in Gaussian Models. - 18.10.1 Correlations for σy and σz Based on Similarity Theory. - 18.10.2 Correlations for σy and σz Based on Pasquill Stability Classes. - 18.11 Plume Rise. - 18.12 Functional Forms of Mean Windspeed and Eddy Diffusivities. - 18.12.1 Mean Windspeed. - 18.12.2 Vertical Eddy Diffusion Coefficient Kzz. - 18.12.3 Horizontal Eddy Diffusion Coefficients Kzz and Kyy. - . - 18.13 Solutions of the Steady-State Atmospheric Diffusion Equation. - 18.13.1 Diffusion from a Point Source. - 18.13.2 Diffusion from a Line Source. - Appendix 18.1 Further Solutions of Atmospheric Diffusion. - Problems. - 18.A.1 Solution of (18.29)-(18.31). - 18.A.2 Solution of (18.50) and (18.51). - 18.A.3 Solution of (18.59)-(18.61). - Appendix 18.2 Analytical Properties of the Gaussian Plume Equation. - Problems. - References. - 19 Dry Deposition. - 19.1 Deposition Velocity. - 19.2 Resistance Model for Dry Deposition. - 19.3 Aerodynamic Resistance. - 19.4 Quasi-Laminar Resistance. - 19.4.1 Gases. - 19.4.2 Particles. - 19.5 Surface Resistance. - 19.5.1 Surface Resistance for Dry Deposition of Gases to Water. - 19.5.2 Surface Resistance for Dry Deposition of Gases to Vegetation. - 19.6 Measurement of Dry Deposition. - 19.6.1 Direct Methods. - 19.6.2 Indirect Methods. - 19.6.3 Comparison of Methods. - 19.7 Some Comments on Modeling and Measurement of Dry Deposition. - Problems. - References. - 20 Wet Deposition. - 20.1 General Representation of Atmospheric Wet Removal Processes. - 20.2 Below-Cloud Scavenging of Gases. - 20.2.1 Below-Cloud Scavenging of an Irreversibly Soluble Gas. - 20.2.2 Below-Cloud Scavenging of a Reversibly Soluble Gas. - 20.3 Precipitation Scavenging of Particles. - 20.3.1 Raindrop-Aerosol Collision Efficiency. - 20.3.2 Scavenging Rates. - 20.4 In-Cloud Scavenging. - 20.5 Acid Deposition. - 20.5.1 Acid Rain Overview. - 20.5.2 Acid Rain Data and Trends. - 20.5.3 Effects of Acid Deposition. - 20.5.4 Cloudwater Deposition. - 20.5.5 Fogs and Wet Deposition. - 20.6 Acid Deposition Process Synthesis. - 20.6.1 Chemical Species Involved in Acid Deposition. - 20.6.2 Dry versus Wet Deposition. - 20.6.3 Chemical Pathways for Sulfate and Nitrate Production. - 20.6.4 Source-Receptor Relationships. - 20.6.5 Linearity. - Problems. - References. - 21 General Circulation of the Atmosphere. - 21.1 Hadley Cell. - 21.2 Ferrell Cell and Polar Cell. - 21.3 Coriolis Force. - 21.4 Geostrophic Windspeed. - 21.4.1 Buys Ballot's Law. - 21.4.2 Ekman Spiral. - 21.5 The Thermal Wind Relation. - 21.6 Stratospheric Dynamics. - 21.7 The Hydrologic Cycle. - Appendix 21 Ocean Circulation. - Problems. - References. - 22 Global Cycles: Sulfur and Carbon. - 22.1 The Atmospheric Sulfur Cycle. - 22.2 The Global Carbon Cycle. - 22.2.1 Carbon Dioxide. - 22.2.2 Compartmental Model of the Global Carbon Cycle. - 22.2.3 Atmospheric Lifetime of CO2. - 22.3 Analytical Solution for a Steady-State Four-Compartment Model of the Atmosphere. - Problems. - References. - 23 Climate and Chemical Composition of the Atmosphere. - 23.1 The Global Temperature Record. - 23.2 Solar Variability. - 23.3 Radiative Forcing. - 23.4 Climate Sensitivity. - 23.5 Relative Radiative Forcing Indices. - 23.6 Unrealized Warming. - 23.7 Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Change. - 23.7.1 Indirect Chemical Impacts. - 23.7.2 Atmospheric Lifetimes and Adjustment Times. - 23.8 Radiative Effects of Clouds. - Problems. - References. - 24 Aerosols and Climate. - 24.1 Scattering-Absorbing Model of an Aerosol Layer. - 24.2 Cooling versus Heating of an Aerosol Layer. - 24.3 Scattering Model of an Aerosol Layer for a Nonabsorbing Aerosol. - 24.4 Upscatter Fraction. - 24.5 Optical Depth and Column Forcing. - 24.6 Internal and External Mixtures. - 24.7 Top-of-the-Atmosphere versus Surface Forcing. - 24.8 Indirect Effects of Aerosols on Climate. - 24.8.1 Radiative Model for a Cloudy Atmosphere. - 24.8.2 Sensitivity of Cloud Albedo to Cloud Droplet Number Concentration. - 24.8.3 Relation of Cloud Droplet Number Concentration to Aerosol Concentrations. - Problems. - References. - 25 Atmospheric Chemical Transport Models. - 25.1 Introduction. - 25.1.1 Model Types. - 25.1.2 Types of Atmospheric Chemical Transport Models. - 25.2 Box Models. - 25.2.1 The Eulerian Box Model. - 25.2.2 A Lagrangian Box Model. - 25.3 Three-Dimensional Atmospheric Chemical Transport Models. - 25.3.1 Coordinate System—Uneven Terrain. - 25.3.2 Initial Conditions. - 25.3.3 Boundary Conditions. - 25.4 One-Dimensional Lagrangian Models. - 25.5 Other Forms of Chemical Transport Models. - 25.5.1 Atmospheric Diffusion Equation Expressed in Terms of Mixing Ratio. - 25.5.2 Pressure-Based Coordinate System. - 25.5.3 Spherical Coordinates. - 25.6 Numerical Solution of Chemical Transport Models. - 25.6.1 Coupling Problem—Operator Splitting. - 25.6.2 Chemical Kinetics. - 25.6.3 Diffusion. - 25.6.4 Advection. - 25.7 Model Evaluation. - Problems. - References. - 26 Statistical Models. - 26.1 Receptor Modeling Methods. - 26.1.1 Chemical Mass Balance (CMB). - 26.1.2 Factor Analysis. - 26.1.3 Empirical Orthogonal Function Receptor Models. - 26.2 Probability Distributions for Air Pollutant Concentrations. - 26.2.1 The Lognormal Distribution. - 26.2.2 The Weibull Distribution. - 26.3 Estimation of Parameters in the Distributions. - 26.3.1 Method of Quantiles. - 26.3.2 Method of Moments. - 26.4 Order Statistics of Air Quality Data. - 26.4.1 Basic Notions and Terminology of Order Statistics. - 26.4.2 Extreme Values. - 26.5 Exceedances of Critical Levels. - 26.6 Alternative Forms of Air Quality Standards. - 26.7 Relating Current and Future Air Pollutant Statistical Distributions. - Problems. - References. - Appendix A Units and Physical Constants. - A.1 SI Base Units. - A.2 SI Derived Units. - A.3 Fundamental Physical Constants. - A.4 Properties of the Atmosphere and Water. - A.5 Units for Representing Chemical Reactions. - A.6 Concentrations in the Aqueous Phase. - A.7 Symbols for Concentration. - References. - Appendix B Rate Constants of Atmospheric Chemical Reactions. - References. - Index.

The second edition of this internationally acclaimed text presents the latest developments in atmospheric science. It continues to be the premier text for both a rigorous and a complete treatment of the chemistry of the atmosphere, covering such pivotal topics as: chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere; formation, growth, dynamics, and properties of aerosols; meteorology of air pollution; transport, diffusion, and removal of species in the atmosphere; formation and chemistry of clouds; interaction of atmospheric chemistry and climate; radiative and climatic effects of gases and particles; formulation of mathematical chemical/transport models of the atmosphere. All chapters develop results based on fundamental principles, enabling the reader to build a solid understanding of the science underlying atmospheric processes. Among the new material are three new chapters: Atmospheric radiation and photochemistry, gernal circulation of the atmosphere, and global cycles. In addition, the chapters Stratospheric chemistry, tropospheric chemistry, and organic atmospheric aerosols have been rewritten to reflect the latest findings. Readers familiar with the first edition will discover a text with new structures and new features that greatly aid learning. Many examples are set off in the text to help readers work through the application of concepts. Advanced material has been moved to appendices. Finally, many new problems, coded by degree of difficulty, have been added. A solutions manual is available. Throughly updated and restructured, the second edition of Atmospheric chemistry and physics is an ideal textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, as well as a reference for researchers in environmental engineering, meteorology, chemistry, and the atmospheric sciences.

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