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The periglacial environment Hugh M. French (Professor Emeritus, University of Ottawa, Adjunct Professor, University of Victoria, British Columbia)

By: French, Hugh M [VerfasserIn]Material type: TextTextLanguage: English Publication details: Hoboken, NJ Wiley Blackwell 2018 Edition: Fourth edition; edition first published 2018Description: xxiii, 515 Seiten Illustrationen, Diagramme, Karten 26 cmContent type: Text Media type: ohne Hilfsmittel zu benutzen Carrier type: BandISBN: 9781119132783; 9781119132790 (electronic); 9781119132813 (electronic)Subject(s): Periglazialmorphologie | Klima | Ökologie | Dauerfrostboden | GlazialmorphologieDDC classification: 551.3/84 LOC classification: GB641Other classification: 38.49 | RB 10310 | ggo Online resources: Table of Contents
Contents:
Contents: Preface to Fourth Edition. - Preface to Third Edition. - Preface to Second Edition. - Preface to First Edition. - Acknowledgments. - PART I THE PERIGLACIAL DOMAIN. - 1 Introduction. - 1.1 The Periglacial Concept. - 1.2 Diagnostic Criteria. - 1.3 Periglacial Environments. - 1.4 The Periglacial Domain. - 1.5 The Periglacial Domain and the Cryosphere. - 1.6 Disciplinary Considerations. - 1.6.1 The Growth of Geocryology. - 1.6.2 The Challenge of Quaternary Science. - 1.6.3 Periglacial Geomorphology or Cold-Region Geomorphology?. - 1.7 Societal Considerations. - 1.8 The Growth of Periglacial Knowledge. - 2 Periglacial Climates. - 2.1 Boundary Conditions. - 2.2 Cold Deserts. - 2.3 Regional Climates. - 2.3.1 High Arctic Climates. - 2.3.2 Continental Climates. - 2.3.3 Alpine Climates. - 2.3.4 Montane Climates. - 2.3.5 Climates of Low Annual Temperature Range. - 2.3.6 Antarctica: A Special Case. - 2.4 Snow and Ice. - 2.5 Wind. - 2.6 Ground Climates. - 2.6.1 The 'n'-Factor. - 2.6.2 The Thermal Offset. - 2.6.3 The Ground Temperature Regime. - 2.7 Periglacial Climates and Global Climate Change. - 2.7.1 Basic Facts. - 2.7.2 Why Climate-Cryosphere Interactions Accelerate Climate Warming. - 3 Periglacial Ecosystems. - 3.1 General Statement. - 3.2 Biogeographic Zonation and Major Vegetation Types. - 3.3 Adaptations to Cold, Snow, Wind and Aridity. - 3.4 The Effect of Vegetation. - 3.5 The Polar Deserts. - 3.5.1 The High Arctic Polar Deserts. - 3.5.2 The High Arctic Polar Semi-Deserts. - 3.6 The Polar Desert-Tundra Transition. - 3.7 The Low-Arctic Tundra. - 3.8 The Forest-Tundra Bioclimatic Boundary (The Tree Line). - 3.9 The Boreal Forest. - 3.10 The Alpine and Montane Ecosystems. - 3.11 Antarctica - A Special Case. - 3.12 Periglacial Ecosystems and Climate Change. - PART II FROZEN GROUND AND PERMAFROST. - 4 Ground Freezing, Permafrost and the Active Layer. - 4.1 Introduction. - 4.2 Ground Freezing. - 4.2.1 Basic Concepts. - 4.2.2 Ice Segregation. - 4.2.3 "The Frozen Fringe'. - 4.2.4 Frost Heave. - 4.3 Perennially-Frozen Ground (Permafrost). - 4.4 Moisture and Ice Within Permafrost. - 4.5 Thermal and Physical Properties. - 4.5.1 The Geothermal Regime. - 4.5.2 The TTOP Model. - 4.5.3 Physical Properties. - 4.5.4 Thermal Properties. - 4.6 Permafrost Hydrology. - 4.6.1 Aquifers. - 4.6.2 Hydrochemistry. - 4.6.3 Groundwater Icings. - 4.7 The Active Layer. - 4.7.1 Terminology. - 4.7.2 The Active-Layer Thermal Regime. - 4.7.3 The Transient Layer. - 4.7.4 The Stefan Equation. - 5 Permafrost Distribution and Stability. - 5.1 Introduction. - 5.2 Controls over Permafrost Distribution. - 5.2.1 Relief and Aspect. - 5.2.2 Rock Type. - 5.2.3 Vegetation. - 5.2.4 Snow Cover. - 5.2.5 Fire. - 5.2.6 Lakes and Surface Water Bodies. - 5.3 Spatial Extent of Permafrost and Frozen Ground. - 5.3.1 Latitudinal Permafrost. - 5.3.2 Alpine (Mountain) Permafrost. - 5.3.3 Montane Permafrost. - 5.3.4 Seasonally-Frozen Ground. - 5.4 Sub-Sea and Relict Permafrost. - 5.4.1 Sub-Sea Permafrost. - 5.4.2 Relict (Terrestrial) Permafrost. - 5.5 Permafrost and Ecosystems. - 5.6 Permafrost Monitoring and Mapping. - 5.6.1 CALM and GTN-P (TSP). - 5.6.2 BTS and Mountain Permafrost Probability Mapping. - 5.7 Climate Warming and Permafrost. - 5.7.1 Evidence for Warming Permafrost. - 5.7.2 Evidence for Thawing Permafrost. - 6 Ground Ice and Cryostratigraphy. - 6.1 Introduction. - 6.2 Quantitative Parameters. - 6.3 Epigenetic, Syngenetic and Polygenetic Permafrost. - 6.4 Classification. - 6.4.1 The Russian Approach. - 6.4.2 The North American Approach. - 6.5 Main Ground Ice Types. - 6.5.1 Pore Ice. - 6.5.2 Segregated Ice. - 6.5.3 Intrusive Ice. - 6.5.4 Vein Ice. - 6.5.5 Other Types of Ice. - 6.6 Ice Distribution. - 6.6.1 Amounts. - 6.6.2 Distribution with Depth. - 6.6.3 Ice in Bedrock. - 6.6.4 Ice in Poorly-Lithified Sediments. - 6.7 Cryostratigraphy and Cryolithology. - 6.7.1 Cryostructural Analysis. - 6.7.2 Cryostructures of Epigenetic and Syngenetic Permafrost. - 6.7.3 Thaw Unconformities. - 6.7.4 Aggradational Ice. - 6.7.5 Icy Bodies and Ice, Sand and Soil Pseudomorphs. - 6.8 Ice Crystallography. - 6.9 Ice Geochemistry. - 6.10 Massive Ice and Massive-Icy Bodies. - 6.10.1 Nature and Extent. - 6.10.2 Intra-Sedimental Ice. - 6.10.3 Buried Glacier Ice. - 6.11 Cryostratigraphy and Past Environments. - 7 Aggradational Permafrost Landforms. - 7.1 Introduction. - 7.2 How Does Permafrost Aggrade?. - 7.2.1 The Illisarvik Drained-Lake Experiment. - 7.3 Thermal-Contraction-Crack Polygons. - 7.3.1 Coefficients of Thermal Expansion and Contraction. - 7.3.2 Ice, Sand and Soil ('Ground') Wedges. - 7.3.3 Development of the Polygon Net. - 7.3.4 Polygon Morphology. - 7.3.5 Controls over Cracking. - 7.3.6 Climatic Significance. - 7.4 Ice and Sand Wedges. - 7.4.1 Epigenetic Wedges. - 7.4.2 Syngenetic Wedges. - 7.4.3 Anti-Syngenetic Wedges. - 7.4.4 Growth and Deformation of Wedges. - 7.5 Organic Terrain. - 7.5.1 Palsas. - 7.5.2 Peat Plateaus. - 7.6 Frost Mounds. - 7.6.1 Perennial-Frost Mounds. - 7.6.2 Hydraulic (Open) System Pingos. - 7.6.3 Hydrostatic (Closed) System Pingos. - 7.6.4 Other Perennial-Frost Mounds. - 7.6.5 Seasonal-Frost Mounds. - 7.6.6 Hydrolaccoliths and Other Frost-Induced Mounds. - 8 Thermokarst Processes and Landforms. - 8.1 Introduction. - 8.2 Thawing Ground. - 8.2.1 Thaw Strain and Thaw Settlement. - 8.2.2 Potential Depths of Soil Freezing and Thawing. - 8.2.3 The Development of Thermokarst. - 8.3 Causes of Thermokarst. - 8.3.1 General Comments. - 8.3.2 Specific Causes. - 8.4 Thaw-Related Processes. - 8.4.1 Thermokarst Subsidence (Thaw Settlement). - 8.4.2 Thermal Erosion. - 8.4.3 Other Processes. - 8.5 Thermokarst Sediments and Structures. - 8.5.1 Involuted Structures. - 8.5.2 Retrogressive-Thaw-Slumps and Debris-Flow Deposits. - 8.5.3 Ice-Wedge Pseudomorphs and Composite-Wedge Casts. - 8.5.4 Ice, Silt, Sand and Gravel Pseudomorphs. - 8.6 Thermokarst Landscapes. - 8.6.1 The Alas-Thermokarst Relief of Central Yakutia. - 8.6.2 The Western North American Arctic. - 8.6.3 The Ice-Free Areas of Continental Antarctica. - 8.7 Ice-Wedge Thermokarst Relief. - 8.7.1 Low-Centred Polygons. - 8.7.2 High-Centred Polygons. - 8.7.3 Badland Thermokarst Relief. - 8.8 Thaw Lakes and Depressions. - 8.8.1 Lakes and Taliks. - 8.8.2 Morphology. - 8.8.3 Growth and Drainage. - 8.8.4 Oriented Thaw Lakes. - Part III Periglacial Geomorphology. - 9 Cold-Climate Weathering. - 9.1 Introduction. - 9.2 General Weathering Facts. - 9.3 Freezing and Thawing Indices. - 9.4 Rock (Frost?) Shattering. - 9.4.1 Frost Action and Ice Segregation. - 9.4.2 Insolation and Thermal Shock. - 9.4.3 Perspective. - 9.5 Chemical Weathering. - 9.5.1 Karkevagge. - 9.5.2 Solution and Karstification. - 9.5.3 Salt Weathering. - 9.6 Cryogenic Weathering. - 9.6.1 Cryogenic Disintegration. - 9.6.2 The Coefficient of Cryogenic Contrast. - 9.6.3 Physico-Chemical Changes. - 9.6.4 Problematic Phenomena. - 9.7 Cryobiological Weathering. - 9.8 Rates of Cold-Climate Bedrock Weathering. - 9.9 Cryosols and Cryopedology. - 9.9.1 Cryosols. - 9.9.2 Classification. - 9.9.3 Cryosolic Micromorphology. - 10 Mass-Wasting Processes and Active-Layer Phenomena. - 10.1 Introduction. - 10.2 Slow Mass-Wasting Processes. - 10.2.1 Solifluction. - 10.2.2 Frost Creep. - 10.2.3 Gelifluction. - 10.2.4 Solifluction Deposits and Phenomena. - 10.3 Rapid Mass-Wasting Processes. - 10.3.1 Active-Layer-Detachment Slides. - 10.3.2 Debris Flows, Slush Flows and Avalanches. - 10.3.3 Rockfall. - 10.4 Snow Hydrology and Slopewash Processes. - 10.4.1 Snow Hydrology and Snowbanks. - 10.4.2 Surface and Subsurface Wash. - 10.5 Active-Layer Phenomena. - 10.5.1 Frost Heaving. - 10.5.2 Bedrock Heave. - 10.5.3 Upward Heaving of Stones and Objects. - 10.5.4 Stone Tilting. - 10.5.5 Needle Ice. - 10.5.6 Frost Sorting. - 10.5.7 Cryoturbation. - 10.6 Patterned Ground. - 10.6.1 Sorted and Non-Sorted Circles. - 10.6.2 Mud Boils. - 10.6.3 Nets and Stripes. - 11 Azonal Processes and Landforms. - 11.1 Introduction. - 11.2 Fluvial Processes and Landforms. - 11.2.1 Major Rivers. - 11.2.2 Freeze-Up and Break-Up. - 11.2.3 Basin Hydrology. - 11.2.4 Sediment Flow, Surface Transport and Denudation. - 11.2.5 Channel Morphology. - 11.3 Lakes and Lake Ice. - 11.3.1 Lake Ice and Climate Change. - 11.3.2 Perennially-Frozen Lakes. - 11.4 Coastal Processes and Landforms. - 11.4.1 Sea Ice. - 11.4.2 Sea Ice, Wave Generation and Sediment Transport. - 11.4.3 Ice on the Beach and the Near-Shore. - 11.4.4 The Influence of Permafrost. - 11.4.5 Cold-Climate Deltas. - 11.5 Aeolian Processes, Sediments and Landforms. - 11.5.1 Wind Abrasion. - 11.5.2 Wind Deflation. - 11.5.3 Sand Dunes and Sand Sheets. - 11.5.4 Niveo-Aeolian Sediments. - 11.5.5 Loess-Like Silt. - 12 Slope Development and Landscape Evolution. - 12.1 Introduction. - 12.2 Slope Morphology. - 12.2.1 The Free-Face Slope. - 12.2.2 Rectilinear Debris-Mantled Slopes. - 12.2.3 Convexo-Concavo Debris-Mantled Slopes. - 12.2.4 Pediment-Like Slopes and Inselberg-Like Hills. - 12.2.5 Stepped Profiles. - 12.3 Slope and Valley Development. - 12.3.1 Slope Asymmetry. - 12.4 Frozen and Thawing Slopes. - 12.4.1 Frozen Ground (Permafrost) Creep. - 12.4.2 Rock Glaciers. - 12.4.3 Thaw Consolidation and the Stability of Thawing Slopes. - 12.5 Periglacial Slope Evolution. - 12.5.1 The Davisian (Peltier) Model. - 12.5.2 Cryoplanation. - 12.5.3 Richter Denudation Slopes. - 12.6 Landscape Inheritance. - PART IV PLEISTOCENE PERIGLACIAL ENVIRONMENTS. - 13 The Pleistocene Periglacial Domain. - 13.1 Introduction. - 13.2 The Time Scale and Climatic Fluctuations. - 13.3 Global (Eustatic) Considerations. - 13.3.1 Sea-Level Changes. - 13.3.2 Uplift of Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau. - 13.4 Past Glaciations, Permafrost and Frozen Ground. - 13.4.1 Extent of Past Glaciations. - 13.4.2 Relict Permafrost. - 13.5 Pleistocene Periglacial Environments. - 13.5.1 General Considerations. - 13.5.2 Problems of Paleo-Environmental Reconstruction. - 13.5.3 Ice Age Mammals and Ecosystems. - 13.6 The Pleistocene Periglacial Domain in the Northern Hemisphere. - 13.6.1 Extent of LPM Permafrost. - 13.6.2 Western, Central and Southern Europe. - 13.6.3 Eastern Europe and Kazakhstan. - 13.6A Southern, Central and Northern Siberia. - 13.6.5 Western and North-Eastern China. - 13.6.6 North America. - 13.7 The Pleistocene Periglacial Domain in the Southern Circumpolar Region. - 14 Previously-Frozen Ground. - 14.1 Introduction. - 14.2 Past Permafrost Aggradation. - 14.2.1 The Paleo-Active Layer and Associated Weathering Characteristics. - 14.2.2 Fragipans and the Paleo-Permafrost Table. - 14.2.3 Secondary Precipitates and Clay Minerals. - 14.3 Frost-Fissure Pseudomorphs and Casts. - 14.3.1 Terminology Relevant to Pleistocene-Age Structures in Unfrozen Sediments. - 14.3.2 Ice-Wedge Pseudomorphs. - 14.3.3 Sand Veins, Sand-Wedge Casts and Composite-Wedge Casts. - 14.3.4 Frost Cracking: Seasonal or Perennial?. - 14.4 Frost-Mound Remnants. - 14.5 Past Permafrost Degradation. - 14.5.1 Thermokarst Depressions. - 14.5.2 Thermokarst Involutions and 'Sediment-Filled Pots'. - 14.5.3 Large-Scale Soft-Sediment Deformations. - 14.5.4 Non-Diastrophic Structures. - 14.6 Summary. - 15 Pleistocene Periglaciation. - 15.1 Introduction. - 15.2 Intense Frost Action. - 15.2.1 Frost-Disturbed Bedrock. - 15.2.2 Mountain-Top Detritus ('Blockfields'). - 15.2.3 Tors. - 15.2.4 Stratified Slope Deposits. - 15.2.5 Frost-Disturbed Soils, Periglacial Involutions and Patterned Ground. - 15.3 Mass-Wasting and Aeolian-Linked Sediment Deposition. - 15.3.1 Geological 'Time Travellers'. - 15.3.2 Head or Solifluction Deposits. - 15.3.3 'Yedoma' and 'Muck' deposits. - 15.3.4 Loess and Aeolian Silt. - 15.4 Wind Abrasion and Aeolian Sediment Transport. - 15.4.1 Wind-Abraded Rocks. - 15.4.2 Aeolian Sand Deposition. - 15.5 Drainage Modification. - 15.5.1 Ice-Marginal Drainage. - 15.5.2 River and Valley Incision in Ice-Free Areas. - 15.5.3 Enlargement of the Drainage Network. - 15.5.4 Asymmetrical Valley Development. - 15.6 Planation and Pedimentation. - 15.7 A Perspective on Periglaciation. - Part V Human Occupance and The Periglacial Environment. - 16 Urban and Social Infrastructure. - 16.1 Introduction. - 16.2 Human Occupance. - 16.3 Human-Induced Thermokarst. - 16.3.1 Early Siberian and North American Experience. - 16.3.2 The Rapidity of Change. - 16.4 Cold-Regions Engineering. - 16.4.1 General Principles. - 16.4.2 General Solutions. - 16.5 Provision of Municipal Infrastructure in Northern Canada. - 16.5.1 Inuvik, NWT. - 16.5.2 Dawson City, Yukon Territory. - 16.5.3 Yellowknife, NWT. - 16.5A Thompson, Northern Manitoba. - 16.6 The Alaskan Experience: The Example of Fairbanks. - 16.7 Water-Supply Problems. - 16.8 Urban Infrastructure and Climate Change. - 16.8.1 The Russian North. - 16.8.2 Other Areas. - 16.8.3 Related Socio-Economic Changes. - 17 Transportation and Resource Development. - 17.1 Introduction. - 17.2 Rivers as Highways. - 17.3 Roads and Highways. - 17.3.1 Winter Roads. - 173.2 All-Season Roads. - 17A Railways. - 17.4.1 The Hudson Bay Railway, Canada. - 17.4.2 The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), China. - 17.5 Bridge Construction. - 17.6 Runways and Airstrips. - 17.7 Oil and Gas Development. - 17.7.1 Exploration Problems. - 17.7.2 Drilling and Waste-Drilling-Fluid Disposal Problems. - 17.7.3 Pipelines and Permafrost. - 17.8 Mining Activities. - 17.8.1 Placer Gold Mining. - 17.8.2 Opencast Mining. - 17.8.3 Containment and Waste Disposal. - References. - Index.
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Literaturverzeichnis: Seite 423-499 und Index

Contents:
Preface to Fourth Edition. -
Preface to Third Edition. -
Preface to Second Edition. -
Preface to First Edition. -
Acknowledgments. -
PART I THE PERIGLACIAL DOMAIN. -
1 Introduction. -
1.1 The Periglacial Concept. -
1.2 Diagnostic Criteria. -
1.3 Periglacial Environments. -
1.4 The Periglacial Domain. -
1.5 The Periglacial Domain and the Cryosphere. -
1.6 Disciplinary Considerations. -
1.6.1 The Growth of Geocryology. -
1.6.2 The Challenge of Quaternary Science. -
1.6.3 Periglacial Geomorphology or Cold-Region Geomorphology?. -
1.7 Societal Considerations. -
1.8 The Growth of Periglacial Knowledge. -
2 Periglacial Climates. -
2.1 Boundary Conditions. -
2.2 Cold Deserts. -
2.3 Regional Climates. -
2.3.1 High Arctic Climates. -
2.3.2 Continental Climates. -
2.3.3 Alpine Climates. -
2.3.4 Montane Climates. -
2.3.5 Climates of Low Annual Temperature Range. -
2.3.6 Antarctica: A Special Case. -
2.4 Snow and Ice. -
2.5 Wind. -
2.6 Ground Climates. -
2.6.1 The 'n'-Factor. -
2.6.2 The Thermal Offset. -
2.6.3 The Ground Temperature Regime. -
2.7 Periglacial Climates and Global Climate Change. -
2.7.1 Basic Facts. -
2.7.2 Why Climate-Cryosphere Interactions Accelerate Climate Warming. -
3 Periglacial Ecosystems. -
3.1 General Statement. -
3.2 Biogeographic Zonation and Major Vegetation Types. -
3.3 Adaptations to Cold, Snow, Wind and Aridity. -
3.4 The Effect of Vegetation. -
3.5 The Polar Deserts. -
3.5.1 The High Arctic Polar Deserts. -
3.5.2 The High Arctic Polar Semi-Deserts. -
3.6 The Polar Desert-Tundra Transition. -
3.7 The Low-Arctic Tundra. -
3.8 The Forest-Tundra Bioclimatic Boundary (The Tree Line). -
3.9 The Boreal Forest. -
3.10 The Alpine and Montane Ecosystems. -
3.11 Antarctica - A Special Case. -
3.12 Periglacial Ecosystems and Climate Change. -
PART II FROZEN GROUND AND PERMAFROST. -
4 Ground Freezing, Permafrost and the Active Layer. -
4.1 Introduction. -
4.2 Ground Freezing. -
4.2.1 Basic Concepts. -
4.2.2 Ice Segregation. -
4.2.3 "The Frozen Fringe'. -
4.2.4 Frost Heave. -
4.3 Perennially-Frozen Ground (Permafrost). -
4.4 Moisture and Ice Within Permafrost. -
4.5 Thermal and Physical Properties. -
4.5.1 The Geothermal Regime. -
4.5.2 The TTOP Model. -
4.5.3 Physical Properties. -
4.5.4 Thermal Properties. -
4.6 Permafrost Hydrology. -
4.6.1 Aquifers. -
4.6.2 Hydrochemistry. -
4.6.3 Groundwater Icings. -
4.7 The Active Layer. -
4.7.1 Terminology. -
4.7.2 The Active-Layer Thermal Regime. -
4.7.3 The Transient Layer. -
4.7.4 The Stefan Equation. -
5 Permafrost Distribution and Stability. -
5.1 Introduction. -
5.2 Controls over Permafrost Distribution. -
5.2.1 Relief and Aspect. -
5.2.2 Rock Type. -
5.2.3 Vegetation. -
5.2.4 Snow Cover. -
5.2.5 Fire. -
5.2.6 Lakes and Surface Water Bodies. -
5.3 Spatial Extent of Permafrost and Frozen Ground. -
5.3.1 Latitudinal Permafrost. -
5.3.2 Alpine (Mountain) Permafrost. -
5.3.3 Montane Permafrost. -
5.3.4 Seasonally-Frozen Ground. -
5.4 Sub-Sea and Relict Permafrost. -
5.4.1 Sub-Sea Permafrost. -
5.4.2 Relict (Terrestrial) Permafrost. -
5.5 Permafrost and Ecosystems. -
5.6 Permafrost Monitoring and Mapping. -
5.6.1 CALM and GTN-P (TSP). -
5.6.2 BTS and Mountain Permafrost Probability Mapping. -
5.7 Climate Warming and Permafrost. -
5.7.1 Evidence for Warming Permafrost. -
5.7.2 Evidence for Thawing Permafrost. -
6 Ground Ice and Cryostratigraphy. -
6.1 Introduction. -
6.2 Quantitative Parameters. -
6.3 Epigenetic, Syngenetic and Polygenetic Permafrost. -
6.4 Classification. -
6.4.1 The Russian Approach. -
6.4.2 The North American Approach. -
6.5 Main Ground Ice Types. -
6.5.1 Pore Ice. -
6.5.2 Segregated Ice. -
6.5.3 Intrusive Ice. -
6.5.4 Vein Ice. -
6.5.5 Other Types of Ice. -
6.6 Ice Distribution. -
6.6.1 Amounts. -
6.6.2 Distribution with Depth. -
6.6.3 Ice in Bedrock. -
6.6.4 Ice in Poorly-Lithified Sediments. -
6.7 Cryostratigraphy and Cryolithology. -
6.7.1 Cryostructural Analysis. -
6.7.2 Cryostructures of Epigenetic and Syngenetic Permafrost. -
6.7.3 Thaw Unconformities. -
6.7.4 Aggradational Ice. -
6.7.5 Icy Bodies and Ice, Sand and Soil Pseudomorphs. -
6.8 Ice Crystallography. -
6.9 Ice Geochemistry. -
6.10 Massive Ice and Massive-Icy Bodies. -
6.10.1 Nature and Extent. -
6.10.2 Intra-Sedimental Ice. -
6.10.3 Buried Glacier Ice. -
6.11 Cryostratigraphy and Past Environments. -
7 Aggradational Permafrost Landforms. -
7.1 Introduction. -
7.2 How Does Permafrost Aggrade?. -
7.2.1 The Illisarvik Drained-Lake Experiment. -
7.3 Thermal-Contraction-Crack Polygons. -
7.3.1 Coefficients of Thermal Expansion and Contraction. -
7.3.2 Ice, Sand and Soil ('Ground') Wedges. -
7.3.3 Development of the Polygon Net. -
7.3.4 Polygon Morphology. -
7.3.5 Controls over Cracking. -
7.3.6 Climatic Significance. -
7.4 Ice and Sand Wedges. -
7.4.1 Epigenetic Wedges. -
7.4.2 Syngenetic Wedges. -
7.4.3 Anti-Syngenetic Wedges. -
7.4.4 Growth and Deformation of Wedges. -
7.5 Organic Terrain. -
7.5.1 Palsas. -
7.5.2 Peat Plateaus. -
7.6 Frost Mounds. -
7.6.1 Perennial-Frost Mounds. -
7.6.2 Hydraulic (Open) System Pingos. -
7.6.3 Hydrostatic (Closed) System Pingos. -
7.6.4 Other Perennial-Frost Mounds. -
7.6.5 Seasonal-Frost Mounds. -
7.6.6 Hydrolaccoliths and Other Frost-Induced Mounds. -
8 Thermokarst Processes and Landforms. -
8.1 Introduction. -
8.2 Thawing Ground. -
8.2.1 Thaw Strain and Thaw Settlement. -
8.2.2 Potential Depths of Soil Freezing and Thawing. -
8.2.3 The Development of Thermokarst. -
8.3 Causes of Thermokarst. -
8.3.1 General Comments. -
8.3.2 Specific Causes. -
8.4 Thaw-Related Processes. -
8.4.1 Thermokarst Subsidence (Thaw Settlement). -
8.4.2 Thermal Erosion. -
8.4.3 Other Processes. -
8.5 Thermokarst Sediments and Structures. -
8.5.1 Involuted Structures. -
8.5.2 Retrogressive-Thaw-Slumps and Debris-Flow Deposits. -
8.5.3 Ice-Wedge Pseudomorphs and Composite-Wedge Casts. -
8.5.4 Ice, Silt, Sand and Gravel Pseudomorphs. -
8.6 Thermokarst Landscapes. -
8.6.1 The Alas-Thermokarst Relief of Central Yakutia. -
8.6.2 The Western North American Arctic. -
8.6.3 The Ice-Free Areas of Continental Antarctica. -
8.7 Ice-Wedge Thermokarst Relief. -
8.7.1 Low-Centred Polygons. -
8.7.2 High-Centred Polygons. -
8.7.3 Badland Thermokarst Relief. -
8.8 Thaw Lakes and Depressions. -
8.8.1 Lakes and Taliks. -
8.8.2 Morphology. -
8.8.3 Growth and Drainage. -
8.8.4 Oriented Thaw Lakes. -
Part III Periglacial Geomorphology. -
9 Cold-Climate Weathering. -
9.1 Introduction. -
9.2 General Weathering Facts. -
9.3 Freezing and Thawing Indices. -
9.4 Rock (Frost?) Shattering. -
9.4.1 Frost Action and Ice Segregation. -
9.4.2 Insolation and Thermal Shock. -
9.4.3 Perspective. -
9.5 Chemical Weathering. -
9.5.1 Karkevagge. -
9.5.2 Solution and Karstification. -
9.5.3 Salt Weathering. -
9.6 Cryogenic Weathering. -
9.6.1 Cryogenic Disintegration. -
9.6.2 The Coefficient of Cryogenic Contrast. -
9.6.3 Physico-Chemical Changes. -
9.6.4 Problematic Phenomena. -
9.7 Cryobiological Weathering. -
9.8 Rates of Cold-Climate Bedrock Weathering. -
9.9 Cryosols and Cryopedology. -
9.9.1 Cryosols. -
9.9.2 Classification. -
9.9.3 Cryosolic Micromorphology. -
10 Mass-Wasting Processes and Active-Layer Phenomena. -
10.1 Introduction. -
10.2 Slow Mass-Wasting Processes. -
10.2.1 Solifluction. -
10.2.2 Frost Creep. -
10.2.3 Gelifluction. -
10.2.4 Solifluction Deposits and Phenomena. -
10.3 Rapid Mass-Wasting Processes. -
10.3.1 Active-Layer-Detachment Slides. -
10.3.2 Debris Flows, Slush Flows and Avalanches. -
10.3.3 Rockfall. -
10.4 Snow Hydrology and Slopewash Processes. -
10.4.1 Snow Hydrology and Snowbanks. -
10.4.2 Surface and Subsurface Wash. -
10.5 Active-Layer Phenomena. -
10.5.1 Frost Heaving. -
10.5.2 Bedrock Heave. -
10.5.3 Upward Heaving of Stones and Objects. -
10.5.4 Stone Tilting. -
10.5.5 Needle Ice. -
10.5.6 Frost Sorting. -
10.5.7 Cryoturbation. -
10.6 Patterned Ground. -
10.6.1 Sorted and Non-Sorted Circles. -
10.6.2 Mud Boils. -
10.6.3 Nets and Stripes. -
11 Azonal Processes and Landforms. -
11.1 Introduction. -
11.2 Fluvial Processes and Landforms. -
11.2.1 Major Rivers. -
11.2.2 Freeze-Up and Break-Up. -
11.2.3 Basin Hydrology. -
11.2.4 Sediment Flow, Surface Transport and Denudation. -
11.2.5 Channel Morphology. -
11.3 Lakes and Lake Ice. -
11.3.1 Lake Ice and Climate Change. -
11.3.2 Perennially-Frozen Lakes. -
11.4 Coastal Processes and Landforms. -
11.4.1 Sea Ice. -
11.4.2 Sea Ice, Wave Generation and Sediment Transport. -
11.4.3 Ice on the Beach and the Near-Shore. -
11.4.4 The Influence of Permafrost. -
11.4.5 Cold-Climate Deltas. -
11.5 Aeolian Processes, Sediments and Landforms. -
11.5.1 Wind Abrasion. -
11.5.2 Wind Deflation. -
11.5.3 Sand Dunes and Sand Sheets. -
11.5.4 Niveo-Aeolian Sediments. -
11.5.5 Loess-Like Silt. -
12 Slope Development and Landscape Evolution. -
12.1 Introduction. -
12.2 Slope Morphology. -
12.2.1 The Free-Face Slope. -
12.2.2 Rectilinear Debris-Mantled Slopes. -
12.2.3 Convexo-Concavo Debris-Mantled Slopes. -
12.2.4 Pediment-Like Slopes and Inselberg-Like Hills. -
12.2.5 Stepped Profiles. -
12.3 Slope and Valley Development. -
12.3.1 Slope Asymmetry. -
12.4 Frozen and Thawing Slopes. -
12.4.1 Frozen Ground (Permafrost) Creep. -
12.4.2 Rock Glaciers. -
12.4.3 Thaw Consolidation and the Stability of Thawing Slopes. -
12.5 Periglacial Slope Evolution. -
12.5.1 The Davisian (Peltier) Model. -
12.5.2 Cryoplanation. -
12.5.3 Richter Denudation Slopes. -
12.6 Landscape Inheritance. -
PART IV PLEISTOCENE PERIGLACIAL ENVIRONMENTS. -
13 The Pleistocene Periglacial Domain. -
13.1 Introduction. -
13.2 The Time Scale and Climatic Fluctuations. -
13.3 Global (Eustatic) Considerations. -
13.3.1 Sea-Level Changes. -
13.3.2 Uplift of Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau. -
13.4 Past Glaciations, Permafrost and Frozen Ground. -
13.4.1 Extent of Past Glaciations. -
13.4.2 Relict Permafrost. -
13.5 Pleistocene Periglacial Environments. -
13.5.1 General Considerations. -
13.5.2 Problems of Paleo-Environmental Reconstruction. -
13.5.3 Ice Age Mammals and Ecosystems. -
13.6 The Pleistocene Periglacial Domain in the Northern Hemisphere. -
13.6.1 Extent of LPM Permafrost. -
13.6.2 Western, Central and Southern Europe. -
13.6.3 Eastern Europe and Kazakhstan. -
13.6A Southern, Central and Northern Siberia. -
13.6.5 Western and North-Eastern China. -
13.6.6 North America. -
13.7 The Pleistocene Periglacial Domain in the Southern Circumpolar Region. -
14 Previously-Frozen Ground. -
14.1 Introduction. -
14.2 Past Permafrost Aggradation. -
14.2.1 The Paleo-Active Layer and Associated Weathering Characteristics. -
14.2.2 Fragipans and the Paleo-Permafrost Table. -
14.2.3 Secondary Precipitates and Clay Minerals. -
14.3 Frost-Fissure Pseudomorphs and Casts. -
14.3.1 Terminology Relevant to Pleistocene-Age Structures in Unfrozen Sediments. -
14.3.2 Ice-Wedge Pseudomorphs. -
14.3.3 Sand Veins, Sand-Wedge Casts and Composite-Wedge Casts. -
14.3.4 Frost Cracking: Seasonal or Perennial?. -
14.4 Frost-Mound Remnants. -
14.5 Past Permafrost Degradation. -
14.5.1 Thermokarst Depressions. -
14.5.2 Thermokarst Involutions and 'Sediment-Filled Pots'. -
14.5.3 Large-Scale Soft-Sediment Deformations. -
14.5.4 Non-Diastrophic Structures. -
14.6 Summary. -
15 Pleistocene Periglaciation. -
15.1 Introduction. -
15.2 Intense Frost Action. -
15.2.1 Frost-Disturbed Bedrock. -
15.2.2 Mountain-Top Detritus ('Blockfields'). -
15.2.3 Tors. -
15.2.4 Stratified Slope Deposits. -
15.2.5 Frost-Disturbed Soils, Periglacial Involutions and Patterned Ground. -
15.3 Mass-Wasting and Aeolian-Linked Sediment Deposition. -
15.3.1 Geological 'Time Travellers'. -
15.3.2 Head or Solifluction Deposits. -
15.3.3 'Yedoma' and 'Muck' deposits. -
15.3.4 Loess and Aeolian Silt. -
15.4 Wind Abrasion and Aeolian Sediment Transport. -
15.4.1 Wind-Abraded Rocks. -
15.4.2 Aeolian Sand Deposition. -
15.5 Drainage Modification. -
15.5.1 Ice-Marginal Drainage. -
15.5.2 River and Valley Incision in Ice-Free Areas. -
15.5.3 Enlargement of the Drainage Network. -
15.5.4 Asymmetrical Valley Development. -
15.6 Planation and Pedimentation. -
15.7 A Perspective on Periglaciation. -
Part V Human Occupance and The Periglacial Environment. -
16 Urban and Social Infrastructure. -
16.1 Introduction. -
16.2 Human Occupance. -
16.3 Human-Induced Thermokarst. -
16.3.1 Early Siberian and North American Experience. -
16.3.2 The Rapidity of Change. -
16.4 Cold-Regions Engineering. -
16.4.1 General Principles. -
16.4.2 General Solutions. -
16.5 Provision of Municipal Infrastructure in Northern Canada. -
16.5.1 Inuvik, NWT. -
16.5.2 Dawson City, Yukon Territory. -
16.5.3 Yellowknife, NWT. -
16.5A Thompson, Northern Manitoba. -
16.6 The Alaskan Experience: The Example of Fairbanks. -
16.7 Water-Supply Problems. -
16.8 Urban Infrastructure and Climate Change. -
16.8.1 The Russian North. -
16.8.2 Other Areas. -
16.8.3 Related Socio-Economic Changes. -
17 Transportation and Resource Development. -
17.1 Introduction. -
17.2 Rivers as Highways. -
17.3 Roads and Highways. -
17.3.1 Winter Roads. -
173.2 All-Season Roads. -
17A Railways. -
17.4.1 The Hudson Bay Railway, Canada. -
17.4.2 The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), China. -
17.5 Bridge Construction. -
17.6 Runways and Airstrips. -
17.7 Oil and Gas Development. -
17.7.1 Exploration Problems. -
17.7.2 Drilling and Waste-Drilling-Fluid Disposal Problems. -
17.7.3 Pipelines and Permafrost. -
17.8 Mining Activities. -
17.8.1 Placer Gold Mining. -
17.8.2 Opencast Mining. -
17.8.3 Containment and Waste Disposal. -
References. -
Index.

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